Monday, April 17, 2006

The Art Of The Impossible


If Vaiko jumping sides was a surprise, eat this: Sarath Kumar, Actor and sitting Member of Parliament from the DMK has decided joined the AIADMK. That's not all, his wife, Radhikaa, who runs, Radaan Media, one of the largest and, arguably the most successful, TV production companies in South India, has thrown in her lot as well. Sarath Kumar's entry in the AIADMK fold is a sure shot in the arm for the electoral prospects of Amma's alliance. Sarath Kumar, is a influential and vocal member of the Nadar community, which was a Congress votebank once upon a time. After Kamaraj, himself a Nadar, the community not seen a leader rise from within. Over the years, the void of a seasoned mass Nadar leader coupled with the arrival of a charismatic Nadar in Sarath Kumar, paved the way for the DMK to snatch this votebank away from the Congress. But, the Nadars, for various reasons, were never too comfortable with the DMK. They were never as cosy with Karunanidhi as, say the Thevars were (and are) with Jayalalithaa. The community's internal divisions - Nadar Hindus and Nadar Christians has only split their political clout along regional and religious considerations.
The real reasons for Sarath's exit are still not clear. The community, one hears, is peeved because very few Nadars have been given tickets in Karunanidhi's DPA. Added to this is Sarath's frustration of being sidelined within the party. Sarath's entry to the AIADMK would mean that the Nadar vote would be in favour of Amma's alliance, atleast the Nadar Hindus. And, Sarath is also an effective campaigner and crowd puller, something that would be useful in - what is turning out a close contest - where every seat seems to count and every vote seems to matter.



41 comments:

Sriram Srinivasan said...

good morning!

nice one.

actually, thinking of the number of people who have switched sides in the last one month, the whole state could have been spared a lot of complexity if only jaya and karuna had switched sides!

Anonymous said...

Among the various communities of South India, the Nadars have perhaps clearly evidenced the impact of change over the past 200 years. Considered by high-caste Hindus in the early nineteenth century to be of extremely low status, the Nadars – toddy-tappers, climbers of the palmyra palm – suffered severe social disabilities and were among the most depressed communities in the Tamil country.

When history dawned on the Nadars, traditionally known as Shanars, they were found principally in the two southern districts of Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari. Palmyra climbing and toddy tapping were their traditional occupations. The entire family was engaged in producing different palm products such as fermented juice, jaggery, baskets, mats, cots, and roof beams.

Trade in a small way supplemented their livelihood. Local caste associations (sangams) grew out of this channel of commerce. A tiny fraction of the caste, known as Nadans, were wealthy landowners. In the Hindu caste hierarchy the Nadars ranked very low because of their association with alcohol.

The Nadars have had a turbulent and colourful history. Their struggle to rise above their depressed condition assumed dramatic forms in a series of escalating confrontations between the caste and its antagonists.

Hostility to the efforts of Nadars to establish a new status resulted in a series of violent outbursts culminating in the riots of 1899 known as the Sivakasi Riots. Their old name of ‘Shanar’ was abandoned and the honorific title ‘Nadar’ was adopted. The Justice Party government adopted the term in all public records from 1921.

Because of their sensitive response to social and economic change over the past century and a half, the Nadars have today become one of the most successful groups in the South, in both economic and political terms, and command considerable respect. From among their numbers have come leaders in business, industry and other professions; With foresight, the Nadar community elite controlled management of local temple festivals and established a network of institutions such as schools, colleges and hostels.

From the breast-cloth controversy through the sack of Sivakasi to the Nadar Mahajan Sangam, the Nadars’ rise, exemplifying the processes of mobilization in Indian society, provides rich material for an analysis of the social life of a community in change.

Anonymous said...

The History of Pandiyan Kingdom starts with early prehistory of India before 12000 to 15000 years ago. The ancient Pandiyan kingdom had soverignity over most of Tamil Nadu,Kerala,Southern Karnataka and Srilanka. It is the oldest of all the kingdoms in India, founded by Dravidians. In this kingdom nadars resided.

The Kings had the title Maravarman and Maran. Nelveli Seeveli, Maveli and Chadayan were the titles of the Pandiyan kings. The Maveli Thamburan of Onam could have been a Pandiyan king as there was only Pandiyan king before 3000 yrs at Kerala. The onam festival was celebrated throughout Pandiyan kingdom ie Kerala as well as Tamil nadu in ancient times. Ulagudaya Perumal a Pandian king is supposed to be Maveli of the legends according to the oral tradition. The place called Mavelikkara and Thirunelveli, NenMara in Palakkad and Chadayamangalam all may indicate Pandiyan Soverignity. Lord Ayyappa was born to a Pandiyan princess of Pandalam.

The lords of Pandiyan kingdom had the titles Maran. The language of the Pandiyan kingdom had been an archaic form of Tamil which evolved into various modern Dravidian tongues like Tamil,Malayalam,Kannada,Telugu and Tulu. The religeon of the Pandians. After the British arrival some embraced Christianity as well. Some like Vallikada Panickers(cochin) had been Christians even before five hundred years during the Portuguese period.

The occupation of devars of had been agriculture, including Palmyra tapping and processing, cattle farming, sea going etc. Alcohol, pearls and agricultural products were the major exports. The fisherman community could have played a major role as well. The Ay kings of kerala who were regarded as philanthrophists were vassals of Pandiyans whose names often end with the title Nadan.

The classical Pandiyan kingdom was destroyed and weakened by the invading Kalappiras who were otherwise called kalappala in the 3rd century a.d. The Sangha age and learning came to an abrupt end. The Kalappalars Kings were called Muthariyars and the Aristorcracy and soldiers perhaps formed the Kallar community of Tamil Nadu.The Kalappalars ruled most of the presentday Tamil Nadu and Kerala hence called Mutharaiyar. The Pandiyan kingdom was eclipsed from 300-600 A.D. When some of the ancient tamil communities like Maravas (and Eiyinars were an ancient warlike community who lived in the arid Palai area) and Ahamudiyars joined the Kallars/kallappalas the united tripartite community founded the powerful Later chola kingdom around 800 AD which was hostile to the ancient Pandiyans. The chola kingdom further weakened the Pandiyan kingdom often replacing them with their own. However till the last of the main Pandiyan dynasty the Pandiyan Kings had the title Maravarman indicating that the kings did have the original blood of the Marans ie Nadars. (The prefix of the Dravidian kings indicate the Kulam -Lineage).

Muslim invasion by Malikafur,the general of Allaudin Khilji destroyed the Pandiyan kingdom and plundered it in 1311. The Venad King Kulasekhara Ravi Varma, who perhaps had an understanding with the muslim invaders, captured the southern capital of Pandiyas Tenkasi/kalakkad area and formed the Kalakkad swaroopam. He further assumed the title Maravarman and had a coronation at Kancheepuram as a king with three crowns ( Chera Chola and Pandiya ). However he died without a heir. The ultimate decline of Pandiyas however came after the Vijaya Nagara Nayakars at 1550 who were hostile to the Nadar lords allegedely massacred nadars enmasse. All the Vellai Nadars were hanged. Nadar oral tradition says that 500 gallows (hanging trees-Thooku maram) were planted between Thirunelveli and Palayamkottai. The Nadars were forced to live in the high ranges of western ghats for another 150 yrs. The Naickers were the worst enemies Nadars ever had. The Maravas sided with the Naickers and shared the loot. The Pandiyan kingdom was divided into 72 Palayams which were ruled mostly by Telugu Naickers. The Thuluva Mudaliars who came with the Naickers from Thulunad became the Lords and Generals. Till the time when the Nayakar rule ended at 1801 the Nadars were forced to abandon their property and holdings. They became outcasts in their own land. They were not even allowed in the temples their Pandiyan ancestors had built. When some Nadars approached the British in 1801,Thirunelveli Collector claiming that all these countries were their own and that they were Kshatriyas belonging to the Pandian dynasty, the British officer ordered them to bring a gold coin issued by their king in the past. They could not bring it. So the petition was dismissed. The British came as saviours in a time of oppression by the Telugu Naickers. In the period 1801 to 1850 Nadars got educated,joined the British army, went to work in British plantations. Some started plantations in Kerala. Beginning from 1775 many Nadars were converted to Christianity. Still Nadars neigther adopted westernways nor did they mix with any foreign blooded christians.

Before 300 BC whole of the kerala area was under the Pandian Kingdom. The Chera Kingdom was founded by the Bana people at about 300 BC , who perhaps came to kerala from Karnataka. Chera means the people who came and joined. The king Cheraman Perumal was otherwise called Bana Perumal. The The formation of chera kingdom at Northern Kerala devided the Pandiyan kingdom in the middle.

Thus in the early years of Christ Kerala had three Pandian Principalities. 1)Southern Ay Nadu (the present day Travancore ) 2)Maranadu -area extending from Palaghat to Gudalur and Wayanad including Ezhimalai 3) Pulnadu Kasaragod and South Kanara

The arrival of new warrior casts from the north who were more related to Kurubas( a dravidian people who were living at the central India who mixed with the Scythian,Parthian and Aryan invaders in the early centuries after Christ), through the konkan coast along with their Sanskrit speaking Brahmin masters in 800 AD, radically transformed Northern kerala. The Thulu Nadu records mention that a tribe called Nayar who followed marmumakkathayam and fiercely protective of Brahmins came from north along the konkan coast,and residing at Thulunadu (South Kanara)around 800 AD. They suddenly disappeared from South Kanara around 800 AD. It is understood that Nayars came to kerala around 800 AD. The names Nair and Kuruppu suggest that they are more related to the Kurubas than ancient Tamils of the Chera kingdom. The ancient Pana and Valluvan tribes were either exterminated or assimilated by the Nair warriors. The Nairs who perhaps married among the indigenous Vellala,Valluvan and yadava tribes. The Nairs of Valluvanad preserved many ancient traditions including the Chaver tradition exhibited at the mamangam festival. The custom of Marumakkathayam a form of matrilineal lineage was brought inside kerala by the Nairs. They joined the second Chera Kingdom around 800 a.d. Gradually the ancient chera kingdom was broken and and shared by local princes .The last Chera King, Ravivarma Kulasekhara of Kodungalloor (Trichur) converted himself to Islam and went for a pilgrimage to Mecca in the 12the century. The Chera Kings were replaced by the Namboothiri brahmins around 1400s when they intermarried among the Royal dynasty. The Nairs migrated to Venad around 1100-1200s and succeeded in colonising it. The native yadava rulers of Venad(Travancore) were replaced by Chera rulers. Gradually all the traces of Pandiyan ancestory disappeared though some elements and Pandiya Sakhas existed as late as 18th century. Kollam, Pandalam, Mavelikkara had been the Pandian minor capitals. Nairs turned out to be quite antagonistic to Nadars though much less severe degree than the Muslims and Naickers. Some nairs especially Kurups were always friendly with Nadars and sided with them. The Nadar Kalaries and learning persisted in the southern districts Trivandrum, Quilon and Kanyakumari Districts. They talked either Tamil or a dialect of Manipravalam an ancient form of Malayalam.

The Nadars/Shanars though they assisted the Venad King Marhtanda Varma in 1725 to regain the throne. Brandan Chanan alias Ananda Padmanabhan Nadar who was a member of the Pagode Kalari/Family that time helped the king in the civil war in which the Ettuveetupillaimar tried to kill Marthanda Varma. In latter periods(1725-1800) the Nadars were tortured by the Nair/ Vellala combine. Often they were sold as slaves. Many of them got converted to Christianity. Many Nadars like Swampulingam Nadar, Kasi, Duraiappa Nadars became robbers, a kind of country Robinhoods who hid in the hils and harrassed the caravans. Swampulingam Nadar finally was killed by the British regiment at Maruthuvamalai. Before the British shot him he managed to throw his four year old daughter inside the compound of a British Misssionary who converted her and named her Dona, after whom the village Donavur was named in the later periods.

In a period when only Namboothiri women were allowed to cover the upper part of their body, Nadar women started covering their chest at 1859 leading to fierce protesting by the other communities especially Nairs. This lasted for more than five years. The British never understood Nadars history or their Pandiyan lineage.

Leaders like Soundara Pandiyan nadar were actively involved in the establishment of Dravidian movement.

Very few of the Nadars still have memory about their Pandiyan past. The people with family names Maran,Rayan,Sivanthi,Pandiyakula etc. perhaps were more related to the Pandiyan dynasty than others.

Even now the single majority community at Trivandrum is Nadars.

A kannada speaking sub group among Bunts called Nadavas who reside at South Kanara District of Karnataka also regard themselves as descendents of Pandiyan kings including Bootha Pandia and Deva pandiya. Like Nadars of kerala and Tamil Nadu they have titles like maran and rayan. At Karnataka the Pandiyan kingdom existed at the Mangalore and Kasaragod area. They are believed to have intermingled with the Hoysala dynasty of karnataka who were jains like early Pandiyas. The jain community as well as the Bunts of Karnataka could descend from the ancient Pandiyan kingdom. Some Billavas might have acquired Pandiyan blood by marriage as they have the Pandian title Alwar or Alwa.

The keralas Ezhavas and Edigas (Ezhiyas) are not related to Nadars ethnically and all the apparent similarity could be due to inter-mixing in the recent times. Ezha nadu in ancient Malayalam and Tamil means Srilanka. The Puthalam Nadu described by Ibn Pathutha at the North western Srilanka was a Pandiyan kingdom and could be the place of origin for these communities. The Puthalam kingdom perhaps collapsed around 1350s. The Pandiyan dynasty of Nadars who ruled in Sri Lanka in ancient times were also called Ezhavas and should not be confused with the modern Ezhavas.

The title Panikkan was given to people who were masters in martial arts by the Pandiyan kings. Like Nadars many Ezhava families have the Panikkan title indicating their link and perhaps the origins from the ancient Pandiyan kingdom. Like Nadars they were also saivites. The Thiyyas were fierce warriors and their Kalaries are said to resemble closely nadar Kalaries though technically superior than the Southern Kalaries.

In the Modern times the following communities have the ancient Pandiyan lineage. 1)Nadars 2)Nadavas (Bunts) of Karnataka 3)Some Muslims from Karnataka still have Nadar as family name.They claim to have converted before four hundred years

kunjan pillai said...

Nadavas have nothing to do with nadars. Its another name of Bunts of Tulunadu. Nadavas are kannaa speaking while bunts are tulu speaking. They racially similars to nairs of malabar and marriges between them were ancient times expecialys those nairs from north malabar. this info obtained from particular artcle doesnt specify any source. there are many books which says Idiga and Channar name from from same word. search books.google.com. you can find many info

Anonymous said...

there is a lot of anomally in your writeup regarding history of south-india.

Brisk said...

In the past after the fall of Pandian kingdom life has been very cruel to Nadars than any other communities.
They were chased southwards by Nayakkars and Nadars has to taken the lowliest job of climbing palmyrah trees for survival, taught by ezhavas. As it is portayed by many biased historians whose generation hated and cursed Nadars for ages just out of fear. Fearing the nadars majority and their unmatched skills.
It is Nadars who saved Marthanda varma, from the thampis and ettu veetu pillais. It is they who helped to build a massive empire that is the travancore.
On support of the nadars Marthanda varma changed his capital to padmanabapuram.
Nadars were never been cunning and they succeded only with their hard work and righteousness.
This same quality paved the way for their downfall.
After the evil designs of Nairs to kill the King has been defeated by Nadars all the ettuvettu pillais were killed and the beautiful women of the ettuvetu pillais were sold to Fisher man in Thrivithamcode. You can still see the fisher man community with looks of nirs in that village. They are called ettuveetu pillais.
About the down fall, after the death of Marthanda varma, the new King continued to patronise Nadars and here the crooked minds of the nairs worked out a plan to regain their lost glory and change the capital to Trivandrum.
One day as usual the Nadars taken the king in a pallakku in the night as nadars were the body guards to the king. The nairs approched the nadars and asked them to put of the light for once and in return they offered asack of coins.
The Nadars did exactly what nairs told them to do, and the King asked the Nadan why the pantham was off? and the kutty nadan replied "because of the dews Maharaja".
In the melee Nairs took the king away and made the king to belive that the nadars were to assasinate him, and the King stripped all the favors given to them and nairs became powerful again.
The king changed his capital to Trivandrum.
Even now Nadars have such a pitiable quality and any one can cheat them easily and turn them against their own brothers.
In this world no one can beat a united Nadars. A Nadar can be beaten only by a Nadan.
This lack of unity caused them a few centuries of slavery and insult by communites less in number.

Brisk said...

In the past after the fall of Pandian kingdom life has been very cruel to Nadars than any other communities.
They were chased southwards by Nayakkars and Nadars has to taken the lowliest job of climbing palmyrah trees for survival, taught by ezhavas. As it is portayed by many biased historians whose generation hated and cursed Nadars for ages just out of fear. Fearing the nadars majority and their unmatched skills.
It is Nadars who saved Marthanda varma, from the thampis and ettu veetu pillais. It is they who helped to build a massive empire that is the travancore.
On support of the nadars Marthanda varma changed his capital to padmanabapuram.
Nadars were never been cunning and they succeded only with their hard work and righteousness.
This same quality paved the way for their downfall.
After the evil designs of Nairs to kill the King has been defeated by Nadars all the ettuvettu pillais were killed and the beautiful women of the ettuvetu pillais were sold to Fisher man in Thrivithamcode. You can still see the fisher man community with looks of nirs in that village. They are called ettuveetu pillais.
About the down fall, after the death of Marthanda varma, the new King continued to patronise Nadars and here the crooked minds of the nairs worked out a plan to regain their lost glory and change the capital to Trivandrum.
One day as usual the Nadars taken the king in a pallakku in the night as nadars were the body guards to the king. The nairs approched the nadars and asked them to put of the light for once and in return they offered asack of coins.
The Nadars did exactly what nairs told them to do, and the King asked the Nadan why the pantham was off? and the kutty nadan replied "because of the dews Maharaja".
In the melee Nairs took the king away and made the king to belive that the nadars were to assasinate him, and the King stripped all the favors given to them and nairs became powerful again.
The king changed his capital to Trivandrum.
Even now Nadars have such a pitiable quality and any one can cheat them easily and turn them against their own brothers.
In this world no one can beat a united Nadars. A Nadar can be beaten only by a Nadan.
This lack of unity caused them a few centuries of slavery and insult by communites less in number.

Anonymous said...

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Anonymous said...

NADARS -> CHANNARS were called as
SANTORS , but the historians especially the nairs( sudras - choothiran ) , brahmins says it is the "name of the nobles"
which is not true. Checking " THARISAPALLI SHASANAM " and sangam literature a writing obtained by archiologists - we can

clearly see them as CHANNARS or NADARS. Our histories are written by mostly by non dravidian castes ... so the documents

favour them usually and misguide the informations about nadars and other castes. the famous " history of kerala " written on

initiation of kerala government says it was with Maravar's help Marthanda varma assiled the throne and defeated the nairs

which is false , since nadars helped them.

Also in a famous novel called " Mathanda varma " written by a nair( sudras - choothiran ) seeing the heroic acts of

anandapadmanabhan nadar, he changed the name to Anandapadmanabhan pillai. The historians who identified him to a channan (

nadar ) didn't want to recognize his acts and called him " brandan channan ".

It was Anandapadmanabhan nadar and oottan nadar and nadar community who helped marthandavarma.
OOtan disguised as marthandavarma and was killed by nairs ( sudras - choothiranmanr ) while helping marthanda varma.
Anandapadmanabhan nadar was cheated and poisoned around 1953 ,by divan chempaka raman . May be god didn't let chempaka raman

to live long so he died around 1956.

Out of the 7 " COPPER ( CHEMPU ) PATTAYAM ( DOCUMENT ) " given to anandapadmanaphan nadar - giving lands to him,
one chempu pattayam still remains with great great grandson who was covnerted to christianity, still now.

Famous temple sri padmanabha swami temple was of the nadars. Later when the nairs
( sudras - choothiranmanr ) became government officials at the of veluthampi dalawa and afterwards, changed the
stones marking of the land and corrupted the settlement registers and the land was confiscated to the governments.

The ootupuras was also for the nadars . One of them went to the ootupura with a fish and later they were not
permitted to let in.

some says even marthandavarma was a nadar but it may not be true but a fancy.

But the nadars had marriage alliances with the royal lineage - they were called thrippapur nadans ( aye dynasty)


At the time of veluthampi dalwa , he killed a lot of nadars when they coverted to christianity.
Veluthampi dalwa was against of asking any taxes from brahmin janmis and nairs ( sudras ) , but all the taxes were collected
from nadars ,ezhavas downwards.veluthampi outsted the previous divan when he was favour for collecting taxes from nairs (

but not from brahmins ) , in this reason with the help of british army .
veluthampi made an agreement with british to make travancore its vassal state and made the country to heavy taxes.
ofcourse the taxes had to be paid by nadars not by nairs ( sudras ) and brahmins.
Later he turned against the british and finally he was killed. Again its seen that if one raises his hand unjustly
against the nadars at one time or another a greater force did eliminate their enemies, may it was god's wish

Lost of lands owned by nadars were confiscated to brahmins and to their temples ( vedic brahminism - hindu
religion ) by the governments officials who were nairs ( sudras ) and brahmins ,which caused the down fall of nadars.

Nadars are desendants of pandyans

Anonymous said...

The Malayali Nadar are the descendents of the Villavar (Pandya, Chera, Alupas-Pandya Nadava, Bana and Balija) aristocracy which once founded the Chera Dynasty. Panickars or Nadappanickans was an ancient Pandyan title holders were the Martial art trainers among Nadars. Malayali Nadars practiced Southern Kalarippayattu otherwise called Adimurai or Adithada (in Kottayam District). Some Nadappanicans in the laterdays to Merchantilism and kept shops. Panickan Kada were there in Kerala until recently in Old Travancore. Asans is another title of Malayalee Nadars who are teachers of Kalari, Medicine, Cheymurai ( Black Magic) . Many Asan familes who still practice Kalari survive today among the Malayali Nadars.

http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html

Vallikkada Panicker of Cochin and Maranadu Panicker of Quilon represent the Nadar warriors who joined the Portuguese. Maranadu Panicker and Vallikada Panickar were the two families of Nadar warriors from the Nadalvar- Villavar aristocracy who joined the Portuguese in the 15th century in the hope that the Portuguese will help them regain their lost country. The Portuguese promptly converted them. But never helped them against their Tulu enemies. The descendents of Vallikada Panickars still live in central Kerala in the Central Kerala as members of the Syrian Christian community.
Vallikada Panickars originally belonged to Kshatriya caste from Tamil Nadu from the Nadar community. The family Goddess of Panickars was Valli who was the consort of Tamil god Murugan.
the Panickars continued to practice even after their conversion to Christianity. Panickars though accepted Christianity continued to practice Hindu customs. The Panickars belonged to Kavana near Vazhakkulam near Muvattupuzha which is now famous for Pineapple cultivation. Some of the Vallikada Panickars are still flourish in the Ernakulam District and Vaikkom area.
Keralas legends say that last famous Vallikada Panickar was the General of the Vadakkumkur (Vaikom area) King. When Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore invaded Vadakkumkur around 1740s the Vallikada Panickar and his soldiers defended the Vadakkumkur kingdom. However Marthandavarma succeded in defeating and annexing the Vadakkumkur kingdom after Vallikada Panickar surrendered. Vallikada Panickar was invited to the court of Marthandavarma. When Marthanda Varma asked about the caste of Vallikada Panickar
Vallikada Panickar responed by saying Nayaru Mootha Panickar ( Panickars who were more ancient than Nairs).
Vallikada Panickars and other Nadappanickanmar remained powerful during the Portuguese and Dutch period. British however were against Nadars and were against all indigenous Dravidian people of Kerala. After 1750s the British started supporting Marthandavarma of Tulu Bunt dynasty from Tulunadu leading to the surrender of Vallikada Panickar. Vallikada Panickar was given the position of Tharakan (Broker) and the family was assimilated by the Syrian Christians.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html
Even today many from the Vallikada Panickar family survive at Kottayam Ernakulam and Idukki Districts of Kerala.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/index.html
Maranadu (Kuntara) was in Quilon a Pandyan stronghold in the Chera country. The Panickars of Maranadu were believed to have been Nadars who converted to Christianity. However the mixture with Portuguese and Syrians obscures the identities of many Nadar families in Kerala.
Similarly Kottayam had many Pandyan strongholds to which the Vallikada Panicker belonged or migrated from south.
After the fall of Pandyan and Chera kingdoms the Panickers joined the various communities often the invaders from Tulunadu.

Anonymous said...

The Malayali Nadar are the descendents of the Villavar (Pandya, Chera, Alupas-Pandya Nadava, Bana and Balija) aristocracy which once founded the Chera Dynasty. Panickars or Nadappanickans was an ancient Pandyan title holders were the Martial art trainers among Nadars. Malayali Nadars practiced Southern Kalarippayattu otherwise called Adimurai or Adithada (in Kottayam District). Some Nadappanicans in the laterdays to Merchantilism and kept shops. Panickan Kada were there in Kerala until recently in Old Travancore. Asans is another title of Malayalee Nadars who are teachers of Kalari, Medicine, Cheymurai ( Black Magic) . Many Asan familes who still practice Kalari survive today among the Malayali Nadars.

http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html

Vallikkada Panicker of Cochin and Maranadu Panicker of Quilon represent the Nadar warriors who joined the Portuguese. Maranadu Panicker and Vallikada Panickar were the two families of Nadar warriors from the Nadalvar- Villavar aristocracy who joined the Portuguese in the 15th century in the hope that the Portuguese will help them regain their lost country. The Portuguese promptly converted them. But never helped them against their Tulu enemies. The descendents of Vallikada Panickars still live in central Kerala in the Central Kerala as members of the Syrian Christian community.
Vallikada Panickars originally belonged to Kshatriya caste from Tamil Nadu from the Nadar community. The family Goddess of Panickars was Valli who was the consort of Tamil god Murugan.
the Panickars continued to practice even after their conversion to Christianity. Panickars though accepted Christianity continued to practice Hindu customs. The Panickars belonged to Kavana near Vazhakkulam near Muvattupuzha which is now famous for Pineapple cultivation. Some of the Vallikada Panickars are still flourish in the Ernakulam District and Vaikkom area.
Keralas legends say that last famous Vallikada Panickar was the General of the Vadakkumkur (Vaikom area) King. When Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore invaded Vadakkumkur around 1740s the Vallikada Panickar and his soldiers defended the Vadakkumkur kingdom. However Marthandavarma succeded in defeating and annexing the Vadakkumkur kingdom after Vallikada Panickar surrendered. Vallikada Panickar was invited to the court of Marthandavarma. When Marthanda Varma asked about the caste of Vallikada Panickar
Vallikada Panickar responed by saying Nayaru Mootha Panickar ( Panickars who were more ancient than Nairs).
Vallikada Panickars and other Nadappanickanmar remained powerful during the Portuguese and Dutch period. British however were against Nadars and were against all indigenous Dravidian people of Kerala. After 1750s the British started supporting Marthandavarma of Tulu Bunt dynasty from Tulunadu leading to the surrender of Vallikada Panickar. Vallikada Panickar was given the position of Tharakan (Broker) and the family was assimilated by the Syrian Christians.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html
Even today many from the Vallikada Panickar family survive at Kottayam Ernakulam and Idukki Districts of Kerala.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/index.html
Maranadu (Kuntara) was in Quilon a Pandyan stronghold in the Chera country. The Panickars of Maranadu were believed to have been Nadars who converted to Christianity. However the mixture with Portuguese and Syrians obscures the identities of many Nadar families in Kerala.
Similarly Kottayam had many Pandyan strongholds to which the Vallikada Panicker belonged or migrated from south.
After the fall of Pandyan and Chera kingdoms the Panickers joined the various communities often the invaders from Tulunadu.

Anonymous said...

From time immemorial Kerala had been a Tamil country exclusively ruled by Tamil Kings belonging to the Pandyan and Chera Kings. Southern Kerala had been a stronghold of the Pandyans. When Pliny the elder visited Musiri Pattinam the Chera sub-capital he was invited by the Pandions envoys to Nelkinda ( Neacyndi) near Niranam the Pandion administrative capital.
The king of Muziris, at the date of publication, was Caelobothras. There is another more serviceable port, belonging to the Neacyndi tribe, called Porakad; this is where king Pandion reigned, his capital being a town in the interior a long way from the port, called Madura; while the district from which pepper is conveyed to Becare in canoes made of hollowed tree-trunks is called Cottonara.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pliny-india.html
Pliny who visited Kerala in the first century says that the Muziris (Musirippatinam in Tamil) or Kodungaloor was rueld by Keralaputhras the Villavar Kings of Kerala who had Bow insignia on their flag. All the places south and East of Vembanad Kayal were ruled by Pandyas who had a administrative capital a Nelkinda near [[Niranam]] ( Europeans mispronounced as Neacyndi }. The Pandyan Port was at Purakkad (Porakad). (Purakkadu became Ambalapuzha and Chempakassery only after the Tulu tribes occupied it in the second millennium). The Vadakkum Kur and Thekkum Kur had been a single country called Venpoli Nadu under the Pandyas. Kottayam, Niranam and Thiruvalla had their origins in the Pandyan Period. A place called Pandy still survive between Tahazhi and Niranam. The people of old Pandyan origin still present throughout South India. The Villavar - Nadalvar people had been the rulers of Chera and Pandyan Kingdoms who were closely related. Kulasekhara Vallabhan and Alwar titles are shared by them. Ancient Kerala had only Tamils and purely of people of Dravidian descent occulpied. Dravidian history is transmitted only by Oral traditions.
Maveli Nelveli and Seeveli are the titles of Pandyan rulers of Kerala. Kottayam had been the Second capital of ancient Pandyan kings. Onam festival of Kerala celebrates the Birthday of King Maveli. Mavelikkara, Thirunelveli(Maran) and Nenmara are named after the Pandyan kings.
Madurai Meenakshi Kshetram of Kanjirapalli has an inscription affirming the Villavar origins of Maveli and Pandyan kings.
http://kanjnjirappallikkaran.blogspot.com/2010/12/blog-post.html
Nadalvar-Villavar aristocracy had many subgroups in Kerala ie Villavr Vanavar and Malayar Pazhuvettaraiyar etc.
Kottayam and Niranam (Nelkinda) had been the Pandyan Capitals of Pandyans in Kerala while a Royal house might have existed at Iraniyal at Kanyakumari District. Ambalappuzha had been the ancient Pandyan port called Purakkadu (Pokkare) visited by Pliny. A place called Pandy still exists near Tahazhi in Kerala.

Anonymous said...

Nairs and Namboothris were not Tamils but people who migrated from Ahichatra in Uttarkhand. The Ahichatra or Aichatra Madastana was a Naga kingdom situated at the Indo Nepalese border. (Rampur in Uttarkhand). There is a community called Newar or Newa people who until recently practicing Matriarchy still live there. Kadamba kingdom in Tulunadu was founded by King Mayuravarma in the fourth century AD. To protect his kingdom Mayuravarma brought Naga slaves from Ahichatra led by Brahmin Masters. Tulunadu records kept by Shivally Brahmins called Gramapaddathi describes the migration of Nagas the Bunts/Nairs to south India in 345 AD. Matriarchy is not a Dravidian custom but a Himalyan custom which was brought to south India by these Naga migrants from Nepal. The Kadambas were considered as the worst enemies of the Chera people or Malayalees in the ancient times. Imayavarmban Neduncheralathan a Chera king in the fourth century claim that he defeated the Kadambas. Thus the Nairs and Namboothiris were in the enemy camp of Tamils after their arrival in 345 AD. The Alupas Pandyan Kingdom of Tulunadu a sister country of ancient Pandyas ruled by Nadavas started integrating the Naga army from Ahichatra. These Nagas were called Bantaru or Bants meaning Bonded. The rulers of Alupas Pandyan Kingdom were Nadalvar and now called Nadavas. These Nadavas are now integrated with the Tulu Nadus Bunt after the fall of the Pandyan dynasty in the 14th century. The Kannada speaking Nadavas who might descend from the Tulu Pandyan Alupas dynasty have become a subcaste of their former slaves the Nagas from Ahichatra,the Bunts (who speak Tulu). Similarly the Namboothiris were not part of the ancient Tamil community but descend from the Tulu Brahmins with Ahichatra root who came to work in the Chera temples.
Some Namboothris were present in Kerala from 8th century onwards while Nairs appeared in 10th century onwards only. Thrikodithanam inscription is the first such inscription which mentions the Nair presence in Kerala. But not as warriors but migrant drummers.
http://www.thrikodithanam.org/mural.htm
After the fall of the Chera kingdom in the 12th century the Northern most areas of Kerala was occupied by the various Tulu tribes and a kingdom called Mooshaka or Kolathiri kingdom was established at Kannur. Various Tulu tribes such as Nayara, Menava, Samantha Kuruba and Maralu appeared in Kerala who practiced Matriarchy. From Samanthas a Bunt tribe Kings of Kolathiri kingdom was selected.
Cochin and Venad were ruled by Tamils who practiced Patriarchal descendency ( Father to Son) till 1310 AD. The Tamils of Chera Pandya and Ay kingdoms were still powerful till the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 AD.
After the Malik Kafur invasion at 1310 AD Kerala was occupied by Tulu tribes ethnically different from Tamils. Various subcastes of Tulunadus Bunt (community} such as Nayara Menava Kuruba Samantha Maraalu etc. Among these Tulu tribes Samanthas (meaning equal to Kshatriyas) is a Naga tribe with Ahichatra/Nepal origin became the rulers. Kadamba] king Mayuravarma had brought Naga slaves from Nepal and the Naga kingdom of Uttarkhand called Ahichatra according to the records kept by the Tulunadus Shivally Brahmins called Grama Padhathi. Nair/ Bunt {community} of Tulunadu descend from the Nepalese Nagas. The same Nagas after 1310 Ad occupied Kerala with their Tulu writing system and Sanskrit of Namboothiris who were also a sub group of Tulu Brahmins. The Samantha Kshatriyas practiced Matriarchy Polyandry and worshipped Snakes. The Samanthas built live snake temples throughout Kerala called Sarpakkavu. These Naga rulers who occupied Kerala were primitive who often went stark Naked. Cochin King and his soldiers are depicted in Portuguese atlas wearing minimum dress.
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1700_1799/malabar/cochin/cochin.html
The opportunistic Portuguese invaders under Vasco Da Gama in 1498 AD sided with the primitive Nagas of Tulunadu origin.

Anonymous said...

The Portuguese suppressed the Tamils of Kerala who were the original inahbitants of Kerala. If the European colonial rulers had not come to Kerala at 1500s Dravdian Tamils would have had all the possibilitiy to get rid of the Tulu rule of Namboothris and Samanthas. But the European colonialism supported the Tulu rulers while supporting their bizarre customs such as Matriarchy and Polyandry .
The Portuguese organized a a big army of Villavar-Nadar people in the 16th century at Cochin with the help of the Mapilla Christians of Kerala. Vallikada Panicakrs led these armies. These Mapilla Christians had migrated from Bhagdad Iraq in the 9th century to Quilon ruled by Tamil Ay king Ayyandadikal Thiruvadikal. Tharisappalli plates issued by Ayyandikal has the signatures of recipients in Pahlavi,Kufic and Hebrew.The Mapilla or Syrian Christians married among the local girls hence called Mapilla(Son in Laws). The Persian/Iraqi Syrian Christians were of Nestorian faith of Eastern Orthodoxy. The Syrian Christians and the Portuguese Tamil army dominated the 16th century Kerala. The Portuguese soldiers had the habit of keeping multiple slave women, mistresses and wifes. This led to the emergence of a Mestizo (Portuguese-Indian) community in Kerala. The Mestizos had three subgroups Castizo (white blooded) Mestizo (mixed blooded) and Toepass (pure Indian). During the Portuguese period the Mestizos had vast estates and had become aristocrats of Kerala.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=LFy4pWUlnfwC&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=fort+cochin+Anjana+singh+mestizo&source=bl&ots=e17Q8A_8Tz&sig=RA5P3bPXLoK6WSPLiUJvp4xQAeo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=_wr3TpX4KouqrAfq-_noDw&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

The Syrian-Mapillas had mixed with these Mestizos and formed a large Inland Catholic community. The Inland Catholics called themselves Roman Catholics to differentiate themselves from the Latin Catholics. After the Portuguese left in 1660 AD, the heavily Portuguese mixed community of Kerala did not want to join the Dutch who were Protestants. So in 1662 Portuguese(Mestizo)-Syrian community formed a new sect called Syro-Malabar under the Pope. Some other Mestizo-Syrian community joined the Syro-Malankara sect under the Archbishop of Antioch Turkey in 1665. Syro-Malankara otherwise Jacobites were otherwise called Western Orthodox Christians of Kerala. These Syrian Christians supported the Dutch and British rulers and Tulu Nair/Samantha rulers leading to the decline of Tamil Dynasties.
In the 15th century when Vasco Da Gama came to Kerala Kerala had been still a Tamil speaking country having plenty of Tamil aristocrats living in Kerala.Thousands of Books printed by the Portuguese in Tamil otherwise called Linuga Malabar Tamul are still preserved in Copenhagen and other European Capitals. During the Portuguese period the Christians including Syrian Christians were using the Catechism written in alternate lines of Portuguese and Tamil written with Portuguese script. This was [[Lingua Malabar Tamul]]. After the Portuguese left only Tamil writing system was used by Kerals Christians. Below is a sample from Flos Sanctoram printed at Ambalakkadu near Angamaly at the Jesuit printing press in 1680 AD.
http://www.tidsskrift.dk/visning.jsp?markup=&print=no&id=101382
Mysteriously the large Tamil speaking Christian population of Angamaly , Quilon and Thalassery disappeared after 300 years of subjugation by the Europeans (Portuguese Dutch) who supported Tulu Bunt/Nairs and Nambudiris who originally migrated from Ahichatra in Uttarkhand/Nepal.

Anonymous said...

Valia Thambi Kunju Thambi Kathai Padal written during the life time of Marthanda Varma in 1750s mentions that the Tambimar the sons of the King called Pappu and Raman Thambi who were opponents of Marthandavarma. Pappu and Raman Thambi were protected by many hundred families of Nadanmar and Panikkanmar given to them by the late king. The King Marthandavarma himself was protected and saved by Ananda Padmanabhan Nadar alias Branthan Chanan. Branthan Chanan was assisted by a group of Nadar warriors. The Oral traditions of Travancore say that Branthan Chanan killed Velu Kuruppu a warrior belonging to the Thambimar side with a hand gun around 1730. The Ammachi Pilavu where Marthanda Varma hid while the Branthan was fighting the Nair and Kurup army while killing about 30 warriors. The close association the Nadars had with Aralvoimozhi Kurups is locally known. (CV Raman Pillai a Nair writer wrote the first Malayalam historical Novel claiming that Branthan Chanan was a Nair warrior disguised as a Nadar though he never explained why a Nair should disguise himself as Nadar.). Nadars of that era believed that Marthanda Varma will reinstate them as lords. But instead Marthanda Varma turned hostile to Nadars once he won the war and changed his Capital from the Nadar stronghold Padhmanabha Puram to Trivandrum. Numerous books written in the 18th century mention the warrior clans called Nadappanikkanmar who fought in the armies of Travancore along with Kurppu warriors.
After winning the war against Ettuveetu Pillamar (Vellala mixed Nairs) Marthandavarma banished all the remaining Pillamar to Maldives (Addu) while selling their women to fishermen as slaves.
The Cunning Marthandavarma instead of rewarding Nadars for their help deprived of their former Aristocratic position. Thus Marthandavarma removed all the Tamil aristocracy (Vellala and Villavar-Nadar) and replaced them with Tulu (Nair/Bunt) aristocracy from Kolathunadu (Kannur).
Marthandavarma with British help succeeded making Nadars as outlaws. Nadars were deprived of all the rights including wearing gold, building two storied houses, owning more than ten acres, women covering upperparst of body. (Nair women did not cover their body till the 19th century. Between 14th century to 19th century the primitive Tulu Bunt/Samantha Nairs ruled Kerala who practiced Matriarchy. While the Kings wore only loin cloth women did not cover their upper part of the body. But the Tamils who previously were wearing dress also were forced to go naked after Marthandavarmas period). After the invasion of Tippu Sulthan in 1886, the Northern Tulu kingdoms of Kolathiri (Kannur) and Samuthiri (Calicut) came to an end and a large exodus of Nairs who ranaway without a fight to Travancore. This increased the Nair population to 36 percent of Travancore which greatly strengthened the Tulu (Nair/Samantha) rulers of Travancore. After British made an alliance with the Travancores Dharmaraja in 1795 Travancore Queens openly supported Tulu-Sanskrit (Grantha) language of Nambudiris while banning Malayanma. The Travancore Queens assumed the title Bai to emphasise their Uttarpradesh/Ahichatra origins. Nadars were reduced to the level of slaves in the 19th century.

Anonymous said...

After the Dutch and British actively started supporting Tulu writing system used by Namboothris in 1815 the Christians started speaking Sanskrit Tulu language hitherto used only by the Namboothiris and Bunt/Nairs.
http://shivallibrahmins.com/tulu-language/tulu-language-and-script/n

German and Dutch missionaries actively started promoting the Tulu writing system and started teaching the Keralas Christians the Tulu writing system when the Church Mission Society was founded at Kottayam in 1815 AD. By promoting the Tulu writing system the British erased the Keralas Tamil past and banned the indigenous Tamil like language called Malayanma or Malayalam-Tamil (Lingua Malabar Tamul).

The British East India company did more harm to Nadars than any other foreign invaders. Nadars could not hold Government jobs in Kerala until British left. The British missionaries were part and parcel of the British Raj. British missionaries like Ringeltaube opened schools at Mayiladi in Kanyakumari in 1809. But Nadar converts were treated by the British with contempt. Many of the Nadars became Dacoits in this period. Chembulingam Nadar Kasi Nadar and Duraiyappa Nadars were famous dacoits during the 19th century Travancore.
Nadars had no rights under British who ruled Kerala with the help of Tamil and Tulu Brahmins. British banned all the ancient literature of Kerala including Sangam literature. British modified Keralas history according to their needs. Bitish claimed that Kerala was created by Parasurama and given to Nambudiris. Saint Thomas converted few of these Nambudiris to Christianity according to the European missionaries. But Sangam literatute never mentioned Parasurama or Nambudiris. Chrisitanity was not a known religion to the Tamils of the Chera kingdom. After 800 AD many Christian immigrants from Syria and Bhagdad and Persia came to Kerala. Still Christianity was not practiced by Malayalees until the 14th century when European priest Friar Jordanus Catalini succeeded in converting many at Quilon. The European claims that ancient Tamilakam (Kerala and Tamilnadu)had Christianity is merely political.

The European colonialism led to the near total extermination of the Villavar aristocracy in Kerala.

Anonymous said...

The European colonialism led to the near total extermination of the Nadalvar- Villavar aristocracy in Kerala.
In the 1836 census of Travancore Cochin Nadar community was 8.4 percent of Keralas population. However there was a steep decline of Nadar population in the 19th eentury Kerala. Many Nadars are believed to have integrated themselves with the Marhtoma Syrian Christiantiy in the 19th century especially at Quilon Pathanamthitta Kottayam and Cochin.This is the result of British paramountcy which supported Nairs and Madras Brahmins in Kerala. In the 1930 Census Nadars had shrunken to 3.4 percent of Keralas population. At 200 Nadar Chrisitans make about 1.04 percent while the Hindu Nadars could be around 1-1.5 percent thus making about 2.5 percent of Keralas population.
Sathyanesan Nadar alias Sathyan was a famous Malalam actor from the Malayalee nadar community. Most of the Bishops and Moderators of the South Kerala CSI Diocese are from Nadar community. The CSI church of South Kerala is now in communion with the Marthoma Syrian church.
The Malayali Nadars now concentrated in Trivandrum and Quilon districts lack the political clout or unity so there is no minister from this community at present.Kerala Nadar Mahajana Sangam and VSDP are social organizations of Malayali Nadars. Malayali Nadars are quite backward socio economically even today.

Johncy Panicker said...

Hello...My name is Johncy Panicker and I am a member of the so called Vallikkada panicker Familly. I found that Mr.Anonymous says that my familly was from nadar caste. If you concentrated on the title "Panicker" and the "Valli" then you will feel this argument as a right one. But there are many other variations also. Some scholars who had made some studies on the Vallikkada Panickers states that they are not from nadar caste rather they were the families who migrated from the ancient"Bangal" to the village in the name of the godess Valli in "Chola Mandalam". The village diety was Valli.BUt it doesnt means that our diety was valli,rather it might be kali,because we had a Kalari where we placed our familly diety as the Kalri Paradevatha or main diety. In kerala the Kalari paradevathas were either Lord Shiva or Mother kali since both are gods of wars.
As I mentioned the studies says that we migrated to Cholamandalam from Bangal.The reason for leaving bangal was the increasing conversion of hindus into budhism there around the middle of the 4th century( that is the family left bangal by the middle of the 4th century). Don't know when they reached the Cholamandalam. Anyhow it might took centuries that the family reached the Cholamandalam, since the transportation facilities were not existed as like today. we have to travel either by walk or using some animal like horse. Also it was not we planned to migrate in cholamandalam and started the passage. Rather we travelled looking for a better place to live and so it might took years and may be centuries to reach cholamandalam. (Also if you looked at the migration of arriyan people to south then you can find that it was in between 3rd and 6th ceturies).
Also i forgot to mention that these studies reffer us as one of the arriyan familly who migrated to the south.

Johncy Panicker said...

It was due tothe village in the Cholamandalam that we got the name Valli with us. Even in our familly also the familly members reffer or used to call each other as Vallikombans means the people from the land of Valli( in ancient Malayalam the word kombu is used to reffer a placeor Desam, for example, Kizhakombu is a place in Ernakulam Dist. which simply means the place which comes at the east ie,Kizhakku+Kombu = Kizhakombu).Anyhow it was only after reaching kerala only our family members started to call as Vallikomban.
They again states that this familly was very much skilled in some areas like martial arts and treatment ie, Vaidiyam.They even practiced the "Mathravadam" and "Kuruthi" even after accepting christianity. This familly members migrated from the village called valli to the thulunadu and it is considered that it was the reason that the Kalari established by us was a Thulunadan style and it was a Kuzhikkalari not a tharakalari.It was after the second chera invansion that we are brought to kerala by the then ruled Chera King for the martial service. It was the Cheraking whogave us the title Panicker.It was Kodungallor where we lived in the starting and it is considered that we got converted to christianity during this period( The portugees came in the 16th century only and we were christians by the time the portugees era). After that my fimily migrated to Vallikada, place near Arakuzha in ernakulam dist. and the place got the name because of the presence of the vallikada Family. At that time arakuzha was under the Vadakkumkoor Kingdome and the family was continued serving for the king,but this time it was Vadakkumkoor Kings. The last Panicker who served the king was the chieftain of the Vadakkumkoor army and in the Kerala hystory it was the war with the Vadkkumkoor which made the Marthanda varmas army to flee from the battle field. They made a second attempt, but this time it was the irayimman thambi's brillance which won the game.He contacted the King's brother and offered him the Kingdome if he and his supporting members in the army supported Travankoor, and he accepted the offer.When the King came toknow about this he and his familly left the Kingdome and migrated to Madhhurai since he has a Pandiyan Ancestry. In the battle field the vadakkumkoor army split into two and one part supported the travancore. Also they got the news that the king abandoned his conutry which made the Vallikkada Panicker and his army to surrender.

Johncy Panicker said...

After this event there happened several events which made us to take a dicision of leaving the place and also toleave all the importance or social status they earned..

Now I have some questions to Mr.Anonymous.

Johncy Panicker said...

1. you only mentioned that we were converted tochristians by the portugees,and the familly members are syrian christians. Dont you feel some missmatch here. If we were converted to christians by the portugees then why didn't we accepted the Latine Right rather we were accepted by the syrian christians or the nasranis.Its true that there was a Syro Malabar sect which accepted the Catholicism. But eventually you can see almost all the members (except the Karikkodu Panicker familly and the Panicker veetil family all others are orthodox (means both jacobite and orthodox sect) belivers. Here the Karikkodu Panicker was the brother of the last Vallikkada panicker of Arakuzha and the Panickerveetilfamily is the family of mar Ivaniose who started the Malankara Catholic Sect. Both these families accepted Catholicsm much later after the portugees erra.

Johncy Panicker said...

Second there was not much christian panicker families during the portugees erra. The Vallikada Panicker Family was the only christian family with a "Panickership" in cochin. And in the Synode of Diamper(Udayamperoor Sunnahadose) Which happened in the 15th cetury ,there is clear statement about the arrival of the Arkadeakon ( the chief of the Kerala Christian, Arkadeakon = Jadikku KArthavyan). It states that he arrived with an army of 100 christian soldiers with the leadership of two energetic and couragious persons from cochin with the title of Panickers. They were from Vallikkada apnicker familly since they were the only christian panicker familly in cochin at that time.Then how can you say that he supported portugees since the Koonen Cross oath was tookagainst portugees and The Pope

Johncy Panicker said...

3. If we were supported the portugees then how the orthodox sect accepted as there part since by the koonen cross oath they declared there independance from the portugees,means they went aginst portugees. And it is logical that even after portugees erra also the orthodox sect willnot accept us as there part since we supported the portugees. Also it is important that we stood in the orthodox sect of syrian christians who were one of the aristocratic sect in kerala,not in Latine Catholic sect.

Johncy Panicker said...

now leave the christian part. My next question is, it is true that nadar caste is one of the major caste in Pandya Dynasty(means south thamilnadu).but not in kerala. After the caste system established, they were considered as one of the lower caste in kerala. So do you think that the upper caste people will give or accept such a higher social status for the Vallikkada panickers if he has a nadar caste ancestry.?That also in an erra of the most brudal form of cast system existed in kerala

Johncy Panicker said...

To understand this one need to understand the importance and social status of vallikkada panickers.
As i mentioned earlier, the vallikkada family was one of the first Christian families who got the "Panicker" title.The title Panicker was common in nadar cast in kanyakumari district, and they used to give this title for the teachers of martial arts. But in Cherakingdome or Kerala, only for the expertise ofany art used to awarded that title. It was used to provide in field of Kalripayattu,Jyothishm,vaidiam,etc.
If you learned the kerala hystory you can see several proofs for providing the title "Panicker" for many persons from Nair caste and Ezhava caste. Even brahmin families also used to get the title. So seeing the Panicker title one cannot say that he has a nadar ancestry.

Johncy Panicker said...

I already said how we got the familyname Valli with us.We started to known as Vallikkada Panicker or Valli Panicker as the persons came from vallidesam. Gradually our members also started to call each other as Vallikombanmar.

This purticular Valli desam was there on the shores of bay of Bangal and included in Cholamandalam.

Johncy Panicker said...

Again,
The vallikada panicker was allowed to "keepmunkudumi" and was called as "Thamburan"/ "panickerachan" by others. It was a period where everyone needed permission for everything,even for wearing dress also several restrictions based on caste was there.So keeping a munkudumi like a brahmin who has a very high social status is not an easy thing. Even thogh we were converted tochristians the nadar ancestry will make some oakwardness for other high caste people toaccept us. Also the term "achan" was used to reffer a arriyan person in those days.

Johncy Panicker said...

Again we used to give three feasts for any function in our house, 1st oine is for the brahmins and king, second for the uppercaste aristocratic people and the third for the lowercast. If we have a nadar connection atleast the first level will not happen.

Next as i metioned before the kalari was a kuzhikalari,not atharakalari. Only uppercaste people are allowed tohave a kuzhikalari.

Johncy Panicker said...

Next one is the style we followed is thulunadan, it was not any southern style kalripayattu. You can identify the style of kalarippayattu fromthe major weapon used in each style. The major and dangerous weapon in vadakkan /northern styleis urumi, in southern it is sord,simillerly in thulunadan which ios considered as top class style is spear. In our kalari also the practice of spear is considered as the top. which shows that it was a thulunadan style and this people also has a connection with thulunadu.

Anonymous said...

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Antique-Print-INDIA-MESTIZO-WOMAN-COSTUME-Nieuhof-1682-/230776479893?pt=Art_Prints&hash=item35bb59a095

A Mestizo woman at 1672.

Portuguese organised Nadappanickars under the leadership Vallikada Panickar which was stationed at Peringuzha near Moovattupuzha. Valli is the Tamil goddess the family Goddess of Nadars.

The Porutuguese succeeded in converting the traditional Tamil Villavar/Nadalvar Nada Panickars to join the Roman Catholic fold. Similarly they converted the Meenavars in the Latin Catholic fold.

However the Portuguese promoted only Mestizoss who descended from Portuguese themselves and the Syrian immigrants who immigrated to India after Delhi Sultanate was establsihed in 1206.

The Tamil Villavar and Panickanmar were still dominant when Portuguese came in 1498. The Villavar Vattom king disappeared. The Vallikada Panickars mixed with the Mestizos and lost their Dravidian culture.

The sudden disappearance of Tamils from Kerala was between 16th and 18th century.

European colonialism gave them Syrian Identity and Roman culture.

Anonymous said...

The Aryan and Naga tribes who originally migrated to Tulunadu from Ahichatram (Rampur in Uttranchal) in the Indo-Nepalese border during the rule of Kadamba king Mayuravarma in 345 AD. The King of Ahichatram sent Nagas as slaves to serve under southern kingdoms under the leadership of Nepalese/Uttranchal Brahmins (Shivally and Nambudiri).
The Tulu tribes had been the arch enemies of ancient Tamils of Kerala and the ancient Tamil literature mention them as Vaduga (Vada+ Naga or Northern Nagas). The Nagas and Aryans practiced Matriarchy but Malayalis (a Tamil subclan called Malayar or Hill people) never practiced Matriarchy prior to 1310. Tulunadu had Matriarchy from the fourth century onwards.
Keralolpathy mentions a Tulu prince called Kulasekhara who invaded Kerala with a large Nair army under the leadership of Padamala Nair. The Tulu Kulasekhara had the help of Arabs (Jonaka) as mentioned in Keralolpathy. This Tulu Kulasekhara (a title shared by Pandyas Cheras and Alupas) was not a historical figure but might have been a brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan (Kavi Alupendra 1110 to 1160)). Thus the Later Chera kingdom of Tamils was defeated by a Mythical Tulu invader called Kulasekhara who reigned Kerala for a brief period ie 1102 to 1124-30) and was called Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal. Kulasekahra the Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal thus established the first Matriarchal kingdom of Tulunad /Ahichatram people at Valarpattinam near Kannur in 1102 AD. This Kulasekhara should not be confused with the Tamil Kulsekhara alias Kulasekhara Alwar who established the Later Chera dynasty in Kerala in 800 AD. The Tulu Kulasekhara is often mentioned as the last Cheraman Perumal in Kerala legends. The Padamala Nair allegedly had an affair with the Queen and was executed by the Cheraman (Vadakkan) Perumal. The Tulu invader was forced out of Kerala because of growing opposition. The Bunt/Nairs and Nambudiris who practiced Matriarchy thus first established their kingdom at Kannur after the defeat of Later Chera Dynasty of Tamils in 1102.
The last king of Tamil Later Chera Dynasty could be Rama Varma Kulasekhara who might migrated to Venad . The Villavar (Chera) and Ay Dynasties joined together and survived between the 1102 to 1310 period at Venad at Southern Kerala.
Thus Kannur was under the Matriarchal Tulu tribes while the rest of Kerala were still Tamils. When the Pandyan kingdom became dominant in the 12th century Kerala was under the Tamil rule once again.
Kerala was integral part of Pandyan Kingdom when the Delhis invasion happened in 1310 under Malik Kafur. After this invasion all the Tamil Kingdoms came to an end. Tamil used to be the language of Kerala before the Delhi attack.

Anonymous said...

Kerala was integral part of Pandyan Kingdom when the Delhis invasion happened in 1310 under Malik Kafur. After this invasion all the Tamil Kingdoms came to an end. Tamil used to be the language of Kerala before the Delhi attack.
The rule of Matriarchal dynasties with Tulunadus Bunt sub clans (Samantha, Nayara Menava, Kuruba, Maralu) started in Kerala after 1310. After the fourteenth century Kerala was ruled by Bunt (Samantha Nair) rulers with a North Indian culture and and Tulunadu culture. The Nambudiri Brahmins who of Ahichatra Madasthana origin ruled Kerala and had matriarchal relationship of the four major Samantha rulers ie Travancore, Cochin, Calicut and Kannur.

Thus when the Portuguese arrived at 1498 Kerala was under the Bunt/Samantha princes who practiced matriarchy. But majority of the Malayalees practiced Patrilineal descendcy and not Matriarcy. The Tulu aristocracy who practiced Matriachy ruled over large Patriachal Tamil population.The Tamil/Malayali cultute of earlier era had been suppressed and their Tamil like language called Malayanma (Lingua Malabar Tamul or Malayalam -Tamil) which disappeared during the colonial rule. Until the arrival of British Malayanma was used by the people. Portuguese and Dutch printed in Malayanma which though used Tamil scripts was different from modern Tamil. British banned Malyanma and promoted Tulu script to write Malayalam leading to the disappearance of all the traditional books of Kerala written in Malayanma/ Tamil . Copenhagen museum even today preserves Flos Sanctorum printed in Tamil at Ambalakatta near Angamaly at Cochin.
Tamils joined the Portuguese and eventually got mixed and formed a Mestizo community. Mestizos and their subgroups called Castizo, Topasi were ruled by Portuguese Fidalgos. Mestizos made Christianity a Major religion in Kerala. Mestizo-Tamil people printed books in alternate lines of Tamil and Portuguese (Lingua Malabar Tamul). The immigrants from Syria and Antioch joined these to form a strong Catholic society in Kerala. The Mestizos though encouraged Tamil but allied with the Matriarchal Tulu dynasties thus further weakening the Tamil Dravidian people in Kerala. The Mestizos commanded the Nairs armies derived from Perumpadappu and Edappally in the Dutch –Portuguese war in 1660.

The Portuguese initially offered protection to the Tamil temples but eventually succeeded in converting them to Roman Catholicism. The mixture of Portuguese with Tamils and othere middle eastern immigrants formed a Mestizo community in Kerala. The European colonialism suppressed Dravidian customs and promoted European and Middle Eastern customs.
Vallikada Panickkar of Kavana Periguzha led the Tamil armies for the Portuguese. Vallikada Panickar worshiped the Hindu Goddess Valli who was the Goddess of ethnic Tamils.Similarly Maranadu Panickar at Quilon joined the Portuguese. In Kerala Nadappanikkar or Panickar used to be the the title of the Martial art trainers during the Pandyan and Chera era. Panickars joined various communities after the fall of old Tamil Kingdoms.

Dona Beatriz Natover was a lady lived in the early 16th century at Kodungaloor. Her title indicates she was a Nadavar from Kodungaloor a Tamil aristocratic woman from old Pandyan or Chera dynasties. Felipe Perstrelo Da Mesquita was a Portuguese aristocrat who came in the Sixteenth century to India. Felipe Perstrelo Da Mesquita who initially became the Vicar of Dona Beatriz Natovers Temple and started teaching there as mestre escola or School master eventually convert her and adopt a Portugeuse name. . Felipe Perstrelo Da Mesquitas Gravestone built by Dona Beatriz Natover still exist at In the Mural Art Museum at Thrissur.
.
Nadar or Nadalvar is an ancient aristocratic title from the old Tamil Kingdoms ie Chera, Chola and Pandyan Kingdoms. Nadalvar, Nadalvan, Nadavar, Nadavaru (Kannada) Nadava (Tulu nadu) Nalavar (Sri Lanka) and Nadakkamar are the variants of Nadar title.
Natover could be a Portuguese version of Nadavar.

Anonymous said...

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Nethaji Marthandan said...

to mr brisk,Iam 7th generation of Chandra panicka marthanda Nadan., this can be proved by Kulasekarapatinam & Achanpaadu Inscription in tirunelveli District. my grandmaa use to say through poietical song that pantham anaivathenna kunjurama' panivellam peithathu alloo thamburane. if you have the entire song please give me. my email id is tsrnmarthandan@gmail.com
and also Nawab title have being given to Chandrapanika marthanda Naadavan's yonger Brother Nawab Kumaraveera Marthandan which my elders use to say that as he saved the life of nawab they gave this title. If anyone know about this kindly provide information.
TSRN.Marthandan.

Anonymous said...

Southern Villavar titles of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Villavar (Villavarayar) Vanavar (Vanathirayar Vanavarayar) Malaiyar Enathirayar (Eyinan+Adhi) Maveli Maran
Nadalvar (Nadavar Nadava Nadakkamar) were the Villavar aristocracy which ruled the country.
Seagoing supporting clan was called Meenavar.
Northern Villavar titles of Andhra and Northern India
Bana Mahabali Balija Banajiga
The Northern Bana kingdom disintegrated when more and more Nagas and Gangas came from Orissa and Ganjetic plains.
It is ironic that the Pandyan and Chera kingdoms were brought down by the northern counterparts of the Villavars the Banas.
The Pandyan Kingdom which was defeated by Malik Kafur was occupied by the Balija Naicks and Banas in 1378.

Shanar or Chanar used to be the common name for Nadars. Shanar means Chieftain.
Shanar Ghaut or Shanar Malai is the ancient hideout of Nadars when the Pandyan Kingdom is attacked. Shanar Malai is situated near Tenkasi the ancient Pandyan Royal house .
Travancore state Manual page 14.
http://www.archive.org/stream/travancorestate00aiyagoog#page/n60/mode/2up/search/shanar+
Sanarapalayam is a place North of Madras. This could be one of the Sanar army camps of the later Pandyan Empires northern borders till 1310 AD.
Sanarpalayam are found near Thiruchengode, Perunthurai, Erode, Dharapuram, Gopichetti Palayam at the Northern borders of Pandyan Kingdom.
Palayam in Tamil means Army Camp or Barracks.
Similarly in the Chola country Sannanallur is found near Nannilam.
Nadalvar is the title for the aristocracy of the Villavar people . Nadalvar Nadava Nadar Nattavar and Nattar are some of the varriants.
Nattavar
DONA BEATRIZ NATOVER (NADAVAR) the last princess of Kodungaloor, the Capital of Chera kingdom.
Thrissur Museum contains a Gravestone of a Portuguese Noble man called Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita from the 16th century erected by his wife Dona Beatriz Natover. Dona Beatriz Natover was a indigenous Malayali woman who had a temple at Kodungaloor the medival capital of Chera Dynasty. Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita initially was protecting this temple as Vicar and he was also a school teacher Mestre Escola (School master) in the school run by Dona Beatriz Natover. Ultimately Dona Beatriz Natover was converted to Christianity and acquired the Christian name Dona Beatriz. Perhaps she is from the Chera or Pandian aristocracy with title Nadavar of Kerala.

Anonymous said...

http://www.himalmag.com/advertise/5131-lost-rulers-of-the-malabar-coast.html
Tax collectors called Nattavar is mentioned in five inscriptions from Pennai and Gaddilam river valleys at South Arcot under the Vijaya Nagara Naickers in 1572-1573 period.
PA269&lpg=PA269&dq=nattavar&source=bl&ots=I0OZ2JUwE0&sig=6gvEO-lgRDKUGqWBmSQpRgfE-eM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=p6b1UMKsN4bhlAWWm4H4Bg&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=nattavar&f=false
Mannargudi inscription at 1239 AD also mention Tax collectors called Nattavars.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2jMg8K5dPZUC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=nattavar++inscription&source=bl&ots=wRekUTo0mU&sig=xu7DnqF9gZ_LJCEW79Du6Qv8Y4c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=z6f1UJy6O87VkwXp4oGQAQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=nattavar%20%20inscription&f=false
Nattavarof Idaiyaru is mentioned in South Arcot as the heads of Nadu in an inscription dated 1572 to 85.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2H4PGhFB9ScC&pg=PA291&lpg=PA291&dq=nattavar++inscription&source=bl&ots=5fO9GDfHfC&sig=-jBvSageXld_YxcSzygxLPX25PM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=e671ULnECYmkkgWcsICoBA&ved=0CC4Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=nattavar%20%20inscription&f=false
Thiruvaipadi Nattavar is mentioned in an North Arcot inscription of 1225 AD

Nadalvar
Mahavamsa mentions Akalanka Nadalvar who was a general of the Pandyan king who resisted the Sinhalese general Lanka Pura Dandanatha in the civil war at 1167.
Page 252
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8SSA-KGBgWoC&pg=PA252&lpg=PA252&dq=Akalanka+Nadalvar&source=bl&ots=PheXJ2eKSh&sig=ss4C9HVdUznaeyiDJ6SRwKUE4Uk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i7P1UImzHc7IrQeIpoDICQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Akalanka%20Nadalvar&f=false

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lankapura_Dandanatha
Konga Mangala Nadalvar Kalavandi Nadalvar
Kilamangala Nadalvar are some other Nadalvars mentioned in the Mahavamsha.

Anonymous said...


A252&dq=Akalanka+Nadalvar&source=bl&ots=PheXJ2eKSh&sig=ss4C9HVdUznaeyiDJ6SRwKUE4Uk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i7P1UImzHc7IrQeIpoDICQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Akalanka%20Nadalvar&f=false

Maran Maravarman Enathi (Eyinan +Athi) Rayar and Vanathi (Vanavan +Athi) Rayar Alwar Sevanthi are some other titles of Nadars. Vanavar and Eyinar are Villavar clans.
Numerous Pandyan inscriptions mention the titles Maran and Maravarman
Nammalvar Maran was a Vaishnavaite saint and also a minor prince under the Pandyan king.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nammalvar
Enathi Nayanar was a Vaishanavaite saint who is mentioned as Ezhakula Sanrar Enathi. Enathi Nayanar was an exponent in Swordsmanship and was the teacher of Martial arts to the princes.
http://www.shaivam.org/naeenaat.html

Vanathi Rayars are mentioned as Maveli Vanathi Rayars, Pillai Kulasekhara Vanathi Rayar (Pillai means Prince) who was a vassal of Pandyan king mentioned in Madurai Meenakshi Kshetram inscription (1268) at Ponkunnam in Kerala.
http://kanjnjirappallikkaran.blogspot.in/2010/12/blog-post.html
Villavar/Nadalvar/Vanathirayar aristocracy ruled the Later Chola kingdom when they integrated the ethnically different Naga Kalabhra Vaduga(Andharpradesh) and Ganga(Gauda or Gangetic belt) and Kalinga(Orissa) people.But eventually Chola kingdom fell in the hands of Vaduga when Kulothunga 1 of Eastern Chalukya kingdom was crowned in 1070. Eventually the Villavar Nadalvar power declined.The Vaduga dominated Chola kingdom became the arch enemies of the other Villavar Kingdoms (Chera and Pandyan kingdoms).
Vellai Nadan inscription of Kallidai Kurichi in 1453 mentions the the banishment of Vellai Nadans during the Vijayanagara Naicker era. About two hundred Vellai Nadans were hanged.


Vijayanagara rule under Lakkana Naickan tried to rule Pandyan kingdom with a mixed dynasty of Villavar-Muthariyar between 1451 to 1499.
( Sundara Tol Maha Vilivanathi Rayar, Kaleiyar Somanar, Anjatha Perumal and Muttarasa Thirumalai Maha Vilivanathi Rayar were the four rulers. Vilivanathi =Villavar Muttarasa= Mutharaiyar or Kalabhrar) Few Bana rulers were also appointed by the Naickers to indirectily to rule the Pandyan and Chola Kingdoms. Thirumalirunjolai Mahabalivana was appointed ruler of Madurai in 1477 while Bana chieftain named Virapratapa Sundarattoludaiyan Mahabali Vanadhiraya ruling in Conjivaram (Kanchipuram) in 1469 AD)

Anonymous said...

Vijayanagara Naickers were the mixture of Naga Naicks of of Orissa who had mixed with the Banas hence called themselves Balijas.
Thus Telugu Bana-Balija - Naicks exiled the original Villavar/Nadalvar(Enathirayar Vanathi Rayar Maran) Tamil dynasty of Tamils in the 15th century.

The original Villavar/Nadalvar dynasty withdrew to Tenkasi and nearby Shanar Malai (Ghaut).
At Kerala when the Villavar Chera kingdom was occupied by Ahichatra Naga people from Uttranchal /Nepal. The last Tamil King Veera Udaya Marthanda Varma (title Veera Pandyan because of his mother was Pandyan) of the Chera-Ai dynasty was forced to abdicate in favour of two Tulu-Nepalese Naga princesses called Attingal Rani and Kunnumel Rani send by the Kolathiri ruler (Bunt/Nair/Samantha) of Kannur. Thus the last Tamil Chera(Villavar)-Ay dynast was replaced by a Tulu-Nepalese dynasty which practiced Matriarchy at 1314. A line of Tamil Chera-Ay dynasty appeared at Thirunelveli district and ruled from Kalakkadu, Cheran Madevi and Kallidaikurichi. Boothala Veera Udaya Marthanda Varma of Venads Chera-Ai was defeated by a Tenakasi Pandyan Sri Vallabhan. By 1545 Both Pandyan and Chera-Ai dynasties were defeated by Vijayanagar armies.
In the 1500s the Villavar Vattom (Villar Vattom) Kingdom was supported by Portuguese. Vallikada Panicker served as the General of the Portuguese army at Kerala.
http://www.expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html
From Portuguese period Nairs were European allies. In the 15th century army of Portuguese was made of Christians and Nairs.
Perumpattu Sevvanthi Nadan inscription of 1662 at Vikramasingapuram mentions the social antagonism of Vellalas who had joined the Naickers.

Anonymous said...

In 1730 Branthan Chanan alias Anantha Padmanabhan Nadar led the Chanar armies supporting Marthanda Varma in his struggle against Thambimar his rivals.
At 1785 after the defeat of Northern Naga Kingdoms of Calicut and Kannur by Tippu Sultan an exodus of Nairs to Travancore occurred.
In the 19th century Villavar people were harassed by the Nairs . Some opportunistic Tamils had joined the Nairs. The British colonial rulers till 1800s printed books in Tamil in Kerala.
http://www.hindu.com/2005/10/14/stories/2005101407670300.htm
The British changed their stance in the 1800s and started promoting Tulu writing system of Nairs and Nambudiris. The Tamil like language of Kerala, The Malayanma was banned by British. British historians assisted by some Brahmins fabricated stories to claim that Kerala was never a Dravidian Tamil Villavar country.
The British historians assisted by Madras Brahmin scholors promoted legends that Kerala was never a Tamil country. According to them Kerala was created by Parasurama who gave it to Nambudiris. Some Nambudiris converted to Christianity (Christianity was not a known religion to Tamils until the European missionaries such as Jordanus Catalani in the 13th century). Thus the original inhabitants of Kerala were not Tamil Villavars but Ahichatram Naga/Nambudiri and Christians. (Nairs and Nambudiris were not Tamils but migrants from Ahichatram).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahichatra
When the British Diwans such as Mecaulay and Monroe were ruling between 1795 to 1730 the Villavar people had to face atrocities against them.
Rest is history.





Anonymous said...

CHERA COINS DISPLAYED THE BOW AND ARROW AND PALM TREE
Chera Dynasty was that of Villavar/Nadalvar Kings. The Cheras called themselves Villavar Kon and they were supported by Villavar subcastes such as Villavar, Malayar and Vanavar. Meenavars were the ancient subcastes of Tamil Villavar people.
The Northern counterparts of the Villavar people were Banas who formed the Bana Kingdom and Alupas Pandyan kingdom. Banas had the title Mahabali while the Villavar had the title Maveli. The Villavar titles were Nadalvar (Nadavar, Nadalvar Nadar) Vanavar (Vanathirayar Vanavarayar) Enathirayar(Eyinan+Adhi) Villavar(Villavarayar) Malayar Maran or Mara Nadar etc. The Villavar people controlled most of the South India. The Villavar aristocracy was called Nadazhwar.
The Chera Coins displayed Bow and Arrow insignia alongwith Palm Tree of the Villavars . The Villavar people were involved in the cultivation and harvesting the Palm trees from time immemorial. On some Chera coins there was images resembling Pile of coconuts were seen on the reverse side.
http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?topic=19630.0
Villavar insignia Palm Tree and Bow and Arrow were seen almost all the Chera Coins.
http://www.ebay.in/itm/ANCIENT-INDIA-1005-AD-KONGU-CHERAS-BOW-PALM-TREE-COPPER-COIN-RARE-C-/260866251175
Sun, Moon, Flag Post and Elephants were inscribed too in the Chera coins.
Ummattur Chiefs, a branch of Kongu Cheras who ruled until 14th century even after the fall of Mahodayapuram Cheras issued many copper coins.
http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,19630.msg132765.html?PHPSESSID=3e1f2438d905308d1c17e619f82b87a5#msg132765
Some of the Ancient Chera Coins displayed Hill insignia of Malayar along with their official Bow and Arrow and Palm tree. Rarely Chera Coins displayed the Fish insignia of the Meenavar people.
http://poetryinstone.in/tag/malaiyaman
Kerala meant Kera = Coconut + Alam = Field
All the Villavar kings The Cheras, Pandyas and Alupas Shared Kulasekhara title.
KULA meant lineage or Bunch of Coconuts. SEKHARAN meant collector or Protector.
KULASEKHARAN might mean the Collector of Coconut Bunch.
Kula=Bunch of Cocoanuts Sekharan=Collector.
The Chera coins always displayed the Bow and Arrow and Palm tree the Royal emblem of the Villavar people.

Anonymous said...

CHANAR KASU OR VILLU KASU OF THE CHERA EMPIRE
After the fall of Chera Empire (1102 AD) and the Pandyan Empire(1310) the minting of SANAR KASU or VILLU KASU might have stopped.
However the Sanar Kasu or Villu Kasu was still in usage even after the fall of Villavar Kingdoms in the fourteenth century. Since the original Chanar Kasu or Villukasu was not available a foreign gold coin from Venis was substituted for the Chanar Kasu. Still the foreign Italian gold coin was called CHANAR KASU.
During the Portuguese Era the Venetian Gold Ducats or Sequins were used as a substitute for the Sanar Kasu.
http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/yw/2002/03/16/stories/2002031600100200.htm
http://www.indianetzone.com/22/venetian_coins_south_india.htm
The Venetian sequins displayed St.Mark standing before the Doge, the Venetian Prince and inbetween them was a Cross on the obverse side. On the reverse side of the coin two bow like curved marks were there. British scholors tried to explain why people called it Sanar Kasu because people simply mistook the Doge standing before the cross as a Shanar standing before a Palm tree.
Edgar Thurston like all the other European reasearchers usually writes about Nadars in a disparaging way. European researcers though lacked knowledge in Dravidian language and culture they were effectively assisted by Madras Brahmins. Edgar Thurston and his assistant Kandur Rangachari mentions about the Shanar Coin and maintains that it was only a Venetian Sequin mistaken for a Sanar Kasu.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Erin3nkU3ZUC&pg=PA367&lpg=PA367&dq=castes+and+tribes++thurston+shanar+coin&source=bl&ots=1L_-BsqgjC&sig=UFOgoo60JcoF9fofcErOlkD5ahY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PIGFUYb1PMnorAeZhIHwBw&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%20shanar%20coin&f=false
In the Portuguese Goa Sanar-Kasu was used after 1500s. Perhaps the Goans mistook the Venetian Secchino as a Sanar Kasu too. Though Christians Goans perhaps mistook the cross for a Palm Tree and the Doge standing opposite to St Mark, a Shanar. Hence the Goans called it Shanar Kasu too.
http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/albert-romer-frey/a-dictionary-of-numismatic-names--their-official-and-popular-designations-hci/page-33-a-dictionary-of-numismatic-names--their-official-and-popular-designations-hci.shtml
Other explanation is that the Gold Sanar Kasu otherwise called Villu Kasu had been in usage for many thousand years during the Chera Period and had been a major currency in India and people found a substitute for it in the Venetian Sequins.
In the 19th century when British administration was set up in Thirunelveli a group of Nadars met the Tinnevely collector claiming Royal descent as vanquished Kshatriyas. They claimed that they were the fallen Dravidian Kshatriyas who descended from the Pandyan Cheran and Cholan ie the Tamil Tripartite Kingdoms. Shanar claimed that their ancestors had issued Gold coins called Sanan Kasu. When the Nadar were asked to produce a gold coin they brought a wrong coin ie a Venetian Drachm.
Nobody has actually seen a Gold Villu Kasu or Sanan Kasu from the Chera Pandyan period. But many Chera Copper Coins with Palm tree and Bow and Arrow emblem of the Villavar people does exist.