Monday, April 17, 2006

The Art Of The Impossible


If Vaiko jumping sides was a surprise, eat this: Sarath Kumar, Actor and sitting Member of Parliament from the DMK has decided joined the AIADMK. That's not all, his wife, Radhikaa, who runs, Radaan Media, one of the largest and, arguably the most successful, TV production companies in South India, has thrown in her lot as well. Sarath Kumar's entry in the AIADMK fold is a sure shot in the arm for the electoral prospects of Amma's alliance. Sarath Kumar, is a influential and vocal member of the Nadar community, which was a Congress votebank once upon a time. After Kamaraj, himself a Nadar, the community not seen a leader rise from within. Over the years, the void of a seasoned mass Nadar leader coupled with the arrival of a charismatic Nadar in Sarath Kumar, paved the way for the DMK to snatch this votebank away from the Congress. But, the Nadars, for various reasons, were never too comfortable with the DMK. They were never as cosy with Karunanidhi as, say the Thevars were (and are) with Jayalalithaa. The community's internal divisions - Nadar Hindus and Nadar Christians has only split their political clout along regional and religious considerations.
The real reasons for Sarath's exit are still not clear. The community, one hears, is peeved because very few Nadars have been given tickets in Karunanidhi's DPA. Added to this is Sarath's frustration of being sidelined within the party. Sarath's entry to the AIADMK would mean that the Nadar vote would be in favour of Amma's alliance, atleast the Nadar Hindus. And, Sarath is also an effective campaigner and crowd puller, something that would be useful in - what is turning out a close contest - where every seat seems to count and every vote seems to matter.



62 comments:

Sriram Srinivasan said...

good morning!

nice one.

actually, thinking of the number of people who have switched sides in the last one month, the whole state could have been spared a lot of complexity if only jaya and karuna had switched sides!

Anonymous said...

Among the various communities of South India, the Nadars have perhaps clearly evidenced the impact of change over the past 200 years. Considered by high-caste Hindus in the early nineteenth century to be of extremely low status, the Nadars – toddy-tappers, climbers of the palmyra palm – suffered severe social disabilities and were among the most depressed communities in the Tamil country.

When history dawned on the Nadars, traditionally known as Shanars, they were found principally in the two southern districts of Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari. Palmyra climbing and toddy tapping were their traditional occupations. The entire family was engaged in producing different palm products such as fermented juice, jaggery, baskets, mats, cots, and roof beams.

Trade in a small way supplemented their livelihood. Local caste associations (sangams) grew out of this channel of commerce. A tiny fraction of the caste, known as Nadans, were wealthy landowners. In the Hindu caste hierarchy the Nadars ranked very low because of their association with alcohol.

The Nadars have had a turbulent and colourful history. Their struggle to rise above their depressed condition assumed dramatic forms in a series of escalating confrontations between the caste and its antagonists.

Hostility to the efforts of Nadars to establish a new status resulted in a series of violent outbursts culminating in the riots of 1899 known as the Sivakasi Riots. Their old name of ‘Shanar’ was abandoned and the honorific title ‘Nadar’ was adopted. The Justice Party government adopted the term in all public records from 1921.

Because of their sensitive response to social and economic change over the past century and a half, the Nadars have today become one of the most successful groups in the South, in both economic and political terms, and command considerable respect. From among their numbers have come leaders in business, industry and other professions; With foresight, the Nadar community elite controlled management of local temple festivals and established a network of institutions such as schools, colleges and hostels.

From the breast-cloth controversy through the sack of Sivakasi to the Nadar Mahajan Sangam, the Nadars’ rise, exemplifying the processes of mobilization in Indian society, provides rich material for an analysis of the social life of a community in change.

Anonymous said...

The History of Pandiyan Kingdom starts with early prehistory of India before 12000 to 15000 years ago. The ancient Pandiyan kingdom had soverignity over most of Tamil Nadu,Kerala,Southern Karnataka and Srilanka. It is the oldest of all the kingdoms in India, founded by Dravidians. In this kingdom nadars resided.

The Kings had the title Maravarman and Maran. Nelveli Seeveli, Maveli and Chadayan were the titles of the Pandiyan kings. The Maveli Thamburan of Onam could have been a Pandiyan king as there was only Pandiyan king before 3000 yrs at Kerala. The onam festival was celebrated throughout Pandiyan kingdom ie Kerala as well as Tamil nadu in ancient times. Ulagudaya Perumal a Pandian king is supposed to be Maveli of the legends according to the oral tradition. The place called Mavelikkara and Thirunelveli, NenMara in Palakkad and Chadayamangalam all may indicate Pandiyan Soverignity. Lord Ayyappa was born to a Pandiyan princess of Pandalam.

The lords of Pandiyan kingdom had the titles Maran. The language of the Pandiyan kingdom had been an archaic form of Tamil which evolved into various modern Dravidian tongues like Tamil,Malayalam,Kannada,Telugu and Tulu. The religeon of the Pandians. After the British arrival some embraced Christianity as well. Some like Vallikada Panickers(cochin) had been Christians even before five hundred years during the Portuguese period.

The occupation of devars of had been agriculture, including Palmyra tapping and processing, cattle farming, sea going etc. Alcohol, pearls and agricultural products were the major exports. The fisherman community could have played a major role as well. The Ay kings of kerala who were regarded as philanthrophists were vassals of Pandiyans whose names often end with the title Nadan.

The classical Pandiyan kingdom was destroyed and weakened by the invading Kalappiras who were otherwise called kalappala in the 3rd century a.d. The Sangha age and learning came to an abrupt end. The Kalappalars Kings were called Muthariyars and the Aristorcracy and soldiers perhaps formed the Kallar community of Tamil Nadu.The Kalappalars ruled most of the presentday Tamil Nadu and Kerala hence called Mutharaiyar. The Pandiyan kingdom was eclipsed from 300-600 A.D. When some of the ancient tamil communities like Maravas (and Eiyinars were an ancient warlike community who lived in the arid Palai area) and Ahamudiyars joined the Kallars/kallappalas the united tripartite community founded the powerful Later chola kingdom around 800 AD which was hostile to the ancient Pandiyans. The chola kingdom further weakened the Pandiyan kingdom often replacing them with their own. However till the last of the main Pandiyan dynasty the Pandiyan Kings had the title Maravarman indicating that the kings did have the original blood of the Marans ie Nadars. (The prefix of the Dravidian kings indicate the Kulam -Lineage).

Muslim invasion by Malikafur,the general of Allaudin Khilji destroyed the Pandiyan kingdom and plundered it in 1311. The Venad King Kulasekhara Ravi Varma, who perhaps had an understanding with the muslim invaders, captured the southern capital of Pandiyas Tenkasi/kalakkad area and formed the Kalakkad swaroopam. He further assumed the title Maravarman and had a coronation at Kancheepuram as a king with three crowns ( Chera Chola and Pandiya ). However he died without a heir. The ultimate decline of Pandiyas however came after the Vijaya Nagara Nayakars at 1550 who were hostile to the Nadar lords allegedely massacred nadars enmasse. All the Vellai Nadars were hanged. Nadar oral tradition says that 500 gallows (hanging trees-Thooku maram) were planted between Thirunelveli and Palayamkottai. The Nadars were forced to live in the high ranges of western ghats for another 150 yrs. The Naickers were the worst enemies Nadars ever had. The Maravas sided with the Naickers and shared the loot. The Pandiyan kingdom was divided into 72 Palayams which were ruled mostly by Telugu Naickers. The Thuluva Mudaliars who came with the Naickers from Thulunad became the Lords and Generals. Till the time when the Nayakar rule ended at 1801 the Nadars were forced to abandon their property and holdings. They became outcasts in their own land. They were not even allowed in the temples their Pandiyan ancestors had built. When some Nadars approached the British in 1801,Thirunelveli Collector claiming that all these countries were their own and that they were Kshatriyas belonging to the Pandian dynasty, the British officer ordered them to bring a gold coin issued by their king in the past. They could not bring it. So the petition was dismissed. The British came as saviours in a time of oppression by the Telugu Naickers. In the period 1801 to 1850 Nadars got educated,joined the British army, went to work in British plantations. Some started plantations in Kerala. Beginning from 1775 many Nadars were converted to Christianity. Still Nadars neigther adopted westernways nor did they mix with any foreign blooded christians.

Before 300 BC whole of the kerala area was under the Pandian Kingdom. The Chera Kingdom was founded by the Bana people at about 300 BC , who perhaps came to kerala from Karnataka. Chera means the people who came and joined. The king Cheraman Perumal was otherwise called Bana Perumal. The The formation of chera kingdom at Northern Kerala devided the Pandiyan kingdom in the middle.

Thus in the early years of Christ Kerala had three Pandian Principalities. 1)Southern Ay Nadu (the present day Travancore ) 2)Maranadu -area extending from Palaghat to Gudalur and Wayanad including Ezhimalai 3) Pulnadu Kasaragod and South Kanara

The arrival of new warrior casts from the north who were more related to Kurubas( a dravidian people who were living at the central India who mixed with the Scythian,Parthian and Aryan invaders in the early centuries after Christ), through the konkan coast along with their Sanskrit speaking Brahmin masters in 800 AD, radically transformed Northern kerala. The Thulu Nadu records mention that a tribe called Nayar who followed marmumakkathayam and fiercely protective of Brahmins came from north along the konkan coast,and residing at Thulunadu (South Kanara)around 800 AD. They suddenly disappeared from South Kanara around 800 AD. It is understood that Nayars came to kerala around 800 AD. The names Nair and Kuruppu suggest that they are more related to the Kurubas than ancient Tamils of the Chera kingdom. The ancient Pana and Valluvan tribes were either exterminated or assimilated by the Nair warriors. The Nairs who perhaps married among the indigenous Vellala,Valluvan and yadava tribes. The Nairs of Valluvanad preserved many ancient traditions including the Chaver tradition exhibited at the mamangam festival. The custom of Marumakkathayam a form of matrilineal lineage was brought inside kerala by the Nairs. They joined the second Chera Kingdom around 800 a.d. Gradually the ancient chera kingdom was broken and and shared by local princes .The last Chera King, Ravivarma Kulasekhara of Kodungalloor (Trichur) converted himself to Islam and went for a pilgrimage to Mecca in the 12the century. The Chera Kings were replaced by the Namboothiri brahmins around 1400s when they intermarried among the Royal dynasty. The Nairs migrated to Venad around 1100-1200s and succeeded in colonising it. The native yadava rulers of Venad(Travancore) were replaced by Chera rulers. Gradually all the traces of Pandiyan ancestory disappeared though some elements and Pandiya Sakhas existed as late as 18th century. Kollam, Pandalam, Mavelikkara had been the Pandian minor capitals. Nairs turned out to be quite antagonistic to Nadars though much less severe degree than the Muslims and Naickers. Some nairs especially Kurups were always friendly with Nadars and sided with them. The Nadar Kalaries and learning persisted in the southern districts Trivandrum, Quilon and Kanyakumari Districts. They talked either Tamil or a dialect of Manipravalam an ancient form of Malayalam.

The Nadars/Shanars though they assisted the Venad King Marhtanda Varma in 1725 to regain the throne. Brandan Chanan alias Ananda Padmanabhan Nadar who was a member of the Pagode Kalari/Family that time helped the king in the civil war in which the Ettuveetupillaimar tried to kill Marthanda Varma. In latter periods(1725-1800) the Nadars were tortured by the Nair/ Vellala combine. Often they were sold as slaves. Many of them got converted to Christianity. Many Nadars like Swampulingam Nadar, Kasi, Duraiappa Nadars became robbers, a kind of country Robinhoods who hid in the hils and harrassed the caravans. Swampulingam Nadar finally was killed by the British regiment at Maruthuvamalai. Before the British shot him he managed to throw his four year old daughter inside the compound of a British Misssionary who converted her and named her Dona, after whom the village Donavur was named in the later periods.

In a period when only Namboothiri women were allowed to cover the upper part of their body, Nadar women started covering their chest at 1859 leading to fierce protesting by the other communities especially Nairs. This lasted for more than five years. The British never understood Nadars history or their Pandiyan lineage.

Leaders like Soundara Pandiyan nadar were actively involved in the establishment of Dravidian movement.

Very few of the Nadars still have memory about their Pandiyan past. The people with family names Maran,Rayan,Sivanthi,Pandiyakula etc. perhaps were more related to the Pandiyan dynasty than others.

Even now the single majority community at Trivandrum is Nadars.

A kannada speaking sub group among Bunts called Nadavas who reside at South Kanara District of Karnataka also regard themselves as descendents of Pandiyan kings including Bootha Pandia and Deva pandiya. Like Nadars of kerala and Tamil Nadu they have titles like maran and rayan. At Karnataka the Pandiyan kingdom existed at the Mangalore and Kasaragod area. They are believed to have intermingled with the Hoysala dynasty of karnataka who were jains like early Pandiyas. The jain community as well as the Bunts of Karnataka could descend from the ancient Pandiyan kingdom. Some Billavas might have acquired Pandiyan blood by marriage as they have the Pandian title Alwar or Alwa.

The keralas Ezhavas and Edigas (Ezhiyas) are not related to Nadars ethnically and all the apparent similarity could be due to inter-mixing in the recent times. Ezha nadu in ancient Malayalam and Tamil means Srilanka. The Puthalam Nadu described by Ibn Pathutha at the North western Srilanka was a Pandiyan kingdom and could be the place of origin for these communities. The Puthalam kingdom perhaps collapsed around 1350s. The Pandiyan dynasty of Nadars who ruled in Sri Lanka in ancient times were also called Ezhavas and should not be confused with the modern Ezhavas.

The title Panikkan was given to people who were masters in martial arts by the Pandiyan kings. Like Nadars many Ezhava families have the Panikkan title indicating their link and perhaps the origins from the ancient Pandiyan kingdom. Like Nadars they were also saivites. The Thiyyas were fierce warriors and their Kalaries are said to resemble closely nadar Kalaries though technically superior than the Southern Kalaries.

In the Modern times the following communities have the ancient Pandiyan lineage. 1)Nadars 2)Nadavas (Bunts) of Karnataka 3)Some Muslims from Karnataka still have Nadar as family name.They claim to have converted before four hundred years

kunjan pillai said...

Nadavas have nothing to do with nadars. Its another name of Bunts of Tulunadu. Nadavas are kannaa speaking while bunts are tulu speaking. They racially similars to nairs of malabar and marriges between them were ancient times expecialys those nairs from north malabar. this info obtained from particular artcle doesnt specify any source. there are many books which says Idiga and Channar name from from same word. search books.google.com. you can find many info

Anonymous said...

there is a lot of anomally in your writeup regarding history of south-india.

Brisk said...

In the past after the fall of Pandian kingdom life has been very cruel to Nadars than any other communities.
They were chased southwards by Nayakkars and Nadars has to taken the lowliest job of climbing palmyrah trees for survival, taught by ezhavas. As it is portayed by many biased historians whose generation hated and cursed Nadars for ages just out of fear. Fearing the nadars majority and their unmatched skills.
It is Nadars who saved Marthanda varma, from the thampis and ettu veetu pillais. It is they who helped to build a massive empire that is the travancore.
On support of the nadars Marthanda varma changed his capital to padmanabapuram.
Nadars were never been cunning and they succeded only with their hard work and righteousness.
This same quality paved the way for their downfall.
After the evil designs of Nairs to kill the King has been defeated by Nadars all the ettuvettu pillais were killed and the beautiful women of the ettuvetu pillais were sold to Fisher man in Thrivithamcode. You can still see the fisher man community with looks of nirs in that village. They are called ettuveetu pillais.
About the down fall, after the death of Marthanda varma, the new King continued to patronise Nadars and here the crooked minds of the nairs worked out a plan to regain their lost glory and change the capital to Trivandrum.
One day as usual the Nadars taken the king in a pallakku in the night as nadars were the body guards to the king. The nairs approched the nadars and asked them to put of the light for once and in return they offered asack of coins.
The Nadars did exactly what nairs told them to do, and the King asked the Nadan why the pantham was off? and the kutty nadan replied "because of the dews Maharaja".
In the melee Nairs took the king away and made the king to belive that the nadars were to assasinate him, and the King stripped all the favors given to them and nairs became powerful again.
The king changed his capital to Trivandrum.
Even now Nadars have such a pitiable quality and any one can cheat them easily and turn them against their own brothers.
In this world no one can beat a united Nadars. A Nadar can be beaten only by a Nadan.
This lack of unity caused them a few centuries of slavery and insult by communites less in number.

Brisk said...

In the past after the fall of Pandian kingdom life has been very cruel to Nadars than any other communities.
They were chased southwards by Nayakkars and Nadars has to taken the lowliest job of climbing palmyrah trees for survival, taught by ezhavas. As it is portayed by many biased historians whose generation hated and cursed Nadars for ages just out of fear. Fearing the nadars majority and their unmatched skills.
It is Nadars who saved Marthanda varma, from the thampis and ettu veetu pillais. It is they who helped to build a massive empire that is the travancore.
On support of the nadars Marthanda varma changed his capital to padmanabapuram.
Nadars were never been cunning and they succeded only with their hard work and righteousness.
This same quality paved the way for their downfall.
After the evil designs of Nairs to kill the King has been defeated by Nadars all the ettuvettu pillais were killed and the beautiful women of the ettuvetu pillais were sold to Fisher man in Thrivithamcode. You can still see the fisher man community with looks of nirs in that village. They are called ettuveetu pillais.
About the down fall, after the death of Marthanda varma, the new King continued to patronise Nadars and here the crooked minds of the nairs worked out a plan to regain their lost glory and change the capital to Trivandrum.
One day as usual the Nadars taken the king in a pallakku in the night as nadars were the body guards to the king. The nairs approched the nadars and asked them to put of the light for once and in return they offered asack of coins.
The Nadars did exactly what nairs told them to do, and the King asked the Nadan why the pantham was off? and the kutty nadan replied "because of the dews Maharaja".
In the melee Nairs took the king away and made the king to belive that the nadars were to assasinate him, and the King stripped all the favors given to them and nairs became powerful again.
The king changed his capital to Trivandrum.
Even now Nadars have such a pitiable quality and any one can cheat them easily and turn them against their own brothers.
In this world no one can beat a united Nadars. A Nadar can be beaten only by a Nadan.
This lack of unity caused them a few centuries of slavery and insult by communites less in number.

Anonymous said...

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Anonymous said...

NADARS -> CHANNARS were called as
SANTORS , but the historians especially the nairs( sudras - choothiran ) , brahmins says it is the "name of the nobles"
which is not true. Checking " THARISAPALLI SHASANAM " and sangam literature a writing obtained by archiologists - we can

clearly see them as CHANNARS or NADARS. Our histories are written by mostly by non dravidian castes ... so the documents

favour them usually and misguide the informations about nadars and other castes. the famous " history of kerala " written on

initiation of kerala government says it was with Maravar's help Marthanda varma assiled the throne and defeated the nairs

which is false , since nadars helped them.

Also in a famous novel called " Mathanda varma " written by a nair( sudras - choothiran ) seeing the heroic acts of

anandapadmanabhan nadar, he changed the name to Anandapadmanabhan pillai. The historians who identified him to a channan (

nadar ) didn't want to recognize his acts and called him " brandan channan ".

It was Anandapadmanabhan nadar and oottan nadar and nadar community who helped marthandavarma.
OOtan disguised as marthandavarma and was killed by nairs ( sudras - choothiranmanr ) while helping marthanda varma.
Anandapadmanabhan nadar was cheated and poisoned around 1953 ,by divan chempaka raman . May be god didn't let chempaka raman

to live long so he died around 1956.

Out of the 7 " COPPER ( CHEMPU ) PATTAYAM ( DOCUMENT ) " given to anandapadmanaphan nadar - giving lands to him,
one chempu pattayam still remains with great great grandson who was covnerted to christianity, still now.

Famous temple sri padmanabha swami temple was of the nadars. Later when the nairs
( sudras - choothiranmanr ) became government officials at the of veluthampi dalawa and afterwards, changed the
stones marking of the land and corrupted the settlement registers and the land was confiscated to the governments.

The ootupuras was also for the nadars . One of them went to the ootupura with a fish and later they were not
permitted to let in.

some says even marthandavarma was a nadar but it may not be true but a fancy.

But the nadars had marriage alliances with the royal lineage - they were called thrippapur nadans ( aye dynasty)


At the time of veluthampi dalwa , he killed a lot of nadars when they coverted to christianity.
Veluthampi dalwa was against of asking any taxes from brahmin janmis and nairs ( sudras ) , but all the taxes were collected
from nadars ,ezhavas downwards.veluthampi outsted the previous divan when he was favour for collecting taxes from nairs (

but not from brahmins ) , in this reason with the help of british army .
veluthampi made an agreement with british to make travancore its vassal state and made the country to heavy taxes.
ofcourse the taxes had to be paid by nadars not by nairs ( sudras ) and brahmins.
Later he turned against the british and finally he was killed. Again its seen that if one raises his hand unjustly
against the nadars at one time or another a greater force did eliminate their enemies, may it was god's wish

Lost of lands owned by nadars were confiscated to brahmins and to their temples ( vedic brahminism - hindu
religion ) by the governments officials who were nairs ( sudras ) and brahmins ,which caused the down fall of nadars.

Nadars are desendants of pandyans

Anonymous said...

The Malayali Nadar are the descendents of the Villavar (Pandya, Chera, Alupas-Pandya Nadava, Bana and Balija) aristocracy which once founded the Chera Dynasty. Panickars or Nadappanickans was an ancient Pandyan title holders were the Martial art trainers among Nadars. Malayali Nadars practiced Southern Kalarippayattu otherwise called Adimurai or Adithada (in Kottayam District). Some Nadappanicans in the laterdays to Merchantilism and kept shops. Panickan Kada were there in Kerala until recently in Old Travancore. Asans is another title of Malayalee Nadars who are teachers of Kalari, Medicine, Cheymurai ( Black Magic) . Many Asan familes who still practice Kalari survive today among the Malayali Nadars.

http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html

Vallikkada Panicker of Cochin and Maranadu Panicker of Quilon represent the Nadar warriors who joined the Portuguese. Maranadu Panicker and Vallikada Panickar were the two families of Nadar warriors from the Nadalvar- Villavar aristocracy who joined the Portuguese in the 15th century in the hope that the Portuguese will help them regain their lost country. The Portuguese promptly converted them. But never helped them against their Tulu enemies. The descendents of Vallikada Panickars still live in central Kerala in the Central Kerala as members of the Syrian Christian community.
Vallikada Panickars originally belonged to Kshatriya caste from Tamil Nadu from the Nadar community. The family Goddess of Panickars was Valli who was the consort of Tamil god Murugan.
the Panickars continued to practice even after their conversion to Christianity. Panickars though accepted Christianity continued to practice Hindu customs. The Panickars belonged to Kavana near Vazhakkulam near Muvattupuzha which is now famous for Pineapple cultivation. Some of the Vallikada Panickars are still flourish in the Ernakulam District and Vaikkom area.
Keralas legends say that last famous Vallikada Panickar was the General of the Vadakkumkur (Vaikom area) King. When Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore invaded Vadakkumkur around 1740s the Vallikada Panickar and his soldiers defended the Vadakkumkur kingdom. However Marthandavarma succeded in defeating and annexing the Vadakkumkur kingdom after Vallikada Panickar surrendered. Vallikada Panickar was invited to the court of Marthandavarma. When Marthanda Varma asked about the caste of Vallikada Panickar
Vallikada Panickar responed by saying Nayaru Mootha Panickar ( Panickars who were more ancient than Nairs).
Vallikada Panickars and other Nadappanickanmar remained powerful during the Portuguese and Dutch period. British however were against Nadars and were against all indigenous Dravidian people of Kerala. After 1750s the British started supporting Marthandavarma of Tulu Bunt dynasty from Tulunadu leading to the surrender of Vallikada Panickar. Vallikada Panickar was given the position of Tharakan (Broker) and the family was assimilated by the Syrian Christians.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html
Even today many from the Vallikada Panickar family survive at Kottayam Ernakulam and Idukki Districts of Kerala.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/index.html
Maranadu (Kuntara) was in Quilon a Pandyan stronghold in the Chera country. The Panickars of Maranadu were believed to have been Nadars who converted to Christianity. However the mixture with Portuguese and Syrians obscures the identities of many Nadar families in Kerala.
Similarly Kottayam had many Pandyan strongholds to which the Vallikada Panicker belonged or migrated from south.
After the fall of Pandyan and Chera kingdoms the Panickers joined the various communities often the invaders from Tulunadu.

Anonymous said...

The Malayali Nadar are the descendents of the Villavar (Pandya, Chera, Alupas-Pandya Nadava, Bana and Balija) aristocracy which once founded the Chera Dynasty. Panickars or Nadappanickans was an ancient Pandyan title holders were the Martial art trainers among Nadars. Malayali Nadars practiced Southern Kalarippayattu otherwise called Adimurai or Adithada (in Kottayam District). Some Nadappanicans in the laterdays to Merchantilism and kept shops. Panickan Kada were there in Kerala until recently in Old Travancore. Asans is another title of Malayalee Nadars who are teachers of Kalari, Medicine, Cheymurai ( Black Magic) . Many Asan familes who still practice Kalari survive today among the Malayali Nadars.

http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html

Vallikkada Panicker of Cochin and Maranadu Panicker of Quilon represent the Nadar warriors who joined the Portuguese. Maranadu Panicker and Vallikada Panickar were the two families of Nadar warriors from the Nadalvar- Villavar aristocracy who joined the Portuguese in the 15th century in the hope that the Portuguese will help them regain their lost country. The Portuguese promptly converted them. But never helped them against their Tulu enemies. The descendents of Vallikada Panickars still live in central Kerala in the Central Kerala as members of the Syrian Christian community.
Vallikada Panickars originally belonged to Kshatriya caste from Tamil Nadu from the Nadar community. The family Goddess of Panickars was Valli who was the consort of Tamil god Murugan.
the Panickars continued to practice even after their conversion to Christianity. Panickars though accepted Christianity continued to practice Hindu customs. The Panickars belonged to Kavana near Vazhakkulam near Muvattupuzha which is now famous for Pineapple cultivation. Some of the Vallikada Panickars are still flourish in the Ernakulam District and Vaikkom area.
Keralas legends say that last famous Vallikada Panickar was the General of the Vadakkumkur (Vaikom area) King. When Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore invaded Vadakkumkur around 1740s the Vallikada Panickar and his soldiers defended the Vadakkumkur kingdom. However Marthandavarma succeded in defeating and annexing the Vadakkumkur kingdom after Vallikada Panickar surrendered. Vallikada Panickar was invited to the court of Marthandavarma. When Marthanda Varma asked about the caste of Vallikada Panickar
Vallikada Panickar responed by saying Nayaru Mootha Panickar ( Panickars who were more ancient than Nairs).
Vallikada Panickars and other Nadappanickanmar remained powerful during the Portuguese and Dutch period. British however were against Nadars and were against all indigenous Dravidian people of Kerala. After 1750s the British started supporting Marthandavarma of Tulu Bunt dynasty from Tulunadu leading to the surrender of Vallikada Panickar. Vallikada Panickar was given the position of Tharakan (Broker) and the family was assimilated by the Syrian Christians.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html
Even today many from the Vallikada Panickar family survive at Kottayam Ernakulam and Idukki Districts of Kerala.
http://expert-eyes.org/palli/index.html
Maranadu (Kuntara) was in Quilon a Pandyan stronghold in the Chera country. The Panickars of Maranadu were believed to have been Nadars who converted to Christianity. However the mixture with Portuguese and Syrians obscures the identities of many Nadar families in Kerala.
Similarly Kottayam had many Pandyan strongholds to which the Vallikada Panicker belonged or migrated from south.
After the fall of Pandyan and Chera kingdoms the Panickers joined the various communities often the invaders from Tulunadu.

Anonymous said...

From time immemorial Kerala had been a Tamil country exclusively ruled by Tamil Kings belonging to the Pandyan and Chera Kings. Southern Kerala had been a stronghold of the Pandyans. When Pliny the elder visited Musiri Pattinam the Chera sub-capital he was invited by the Pandions envoys to Nelkinda ( Neacyndi) near Niranam the Pandion administrative capital.
The king of Muziris, at the date of publication, was Caelobothras. There is another more serviceable port, belonging to the Neacyndi tribe, called Porakad; this is where king Pandion reigned, his capital being a town in the interior a long way from the port, called Madura; while the district from which pepper is conveyed to Becare in canoes made of hollowed tree-trunks is called Cottonara.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pliny-india.html
Pliny who visited Kerala in the first century says that the Muziris (Musirippatinam in Tamil) or Kodungaloor was rueld by Keralaputhras the Villavar Kings of Kerala who had Bow insignia on their flag. All the places south and East of Vembanad Kayal were ruled by Pandyas who had a administrative capital a Nelkinda near [[Niranam]] ( Europeans mispronounced as Neacyndi }. The Pandyan Port was at Purakkad (Porakad). (Purakkadu became Ambalapuzha and Chempakassery only after the Tulu tribes occupied it in the second millennium). The Vadakkum Kur and Thekkum Kur had been a single country called Venpoli Nadu under the Pandyas. Kottayam, Niranam and Thiruvalla had their origins in the Pandyan Period. A place called Pandy still survive between Tahazhi and Niranam. The people of old Pandyan origin still present throughout South India. The Villavar - Nadalvar people had been the rulers of Chera and Pandyan Kingdoms who were closely related. Kulasekhara Vallabhan and Alwar titles are shared by them. Ancient Kerala had only Tamils and purely of people of Dravidian descent occulpied. Dravidian history is transmitted only by Oral traditions.
Maveli Nelveli and Seeveli are the titles of Pandyan rulers of Kerala. Kottayam had been the Second capital of ancient Pandyan kings. Onam festival of Kerala celebrates the Birthday of King Maveli. Mavelikkara, Thirunelveli(Maran) and Nenmara are named after the Pandyan kings.
Madurai Meenakshi Kshetram of Kanjirapalli has an inscription affirming the Villavar origins of Maveli and Pandyan kings.
http://kanjnjirappallikkaran.blogspot.com/2010/12/blog-post.html
Nadalvar-Villavar aristocracy had many subgroups in Kerala ie Villavr Vanavar and Malayar Pazhuvettaraiyar etc.
Kottayam and Niranam (Nelkinda) had been the Pandyan Capitals of Pandyans in Kerala while a Royal house might have existed at Iraniyal at Kanyakumari District. Ambalappuzha had been the ancient Pandyan port called Purakkadu (Pokkare) visited by Pliny. A place called Pandy still exists near Tahazhi in Kerala.

Anonymous said...

Nairs and Namboothris were not Tamils but people who migrated from Ahichatra in Uttarkhand. The Ahichatra or Aichatra Madastana was a Naga kingdom situated at the Indo Nepalese border. (Rampur in Uttarkhand). There is a community called Newar or Newa people who until recently practicing Matriarchy still live there. Kadamba kingdom in Tulunadu was founded by King Mayuravarma in the fourth century AD. To protect his kingdom Mayuravarma brought Naga slaves from Ahichatra led by Brahmin Masters. Tulunadu records kept by Shivally Brahmins called Gramapaddathi describes the migration of Nagas the Bunts/Nairs to south India in 345 AD. Matriarchy is not a Dravidian custom but a Himalyan custom which was brought to south India by these Naga migrants from Nepal. The Kadambas were considered as the worst enemies of the Chera people or Malayalees in the ancient times. Imayavarmban Neduncheralathan a Chera king in the fourth century claim that he defeated the Kadambas. Thus the Nairs and Namboothiris were in the enemy camp of Tamils after their arrival in 345 AD. The Alupas Pandyan Kingdom of Tulunadu a sister country of ancient Pandyas ruled by Nadavas started integrating the Naga army from Ahichatra. These Nagas were called Bantaru or Bants meaning Bonded. The rulers of Alupas Pandyan Kingdom were Nadalvar and now called Nadavas. These Nadavas are now integrated with the Tulu Nadus Bunt after the fall of the Pandyan dynasty in the 14th century. The Kannada speaking Nadavas who might descend from the Tulu Pandyan Alupas dynasty have become a subcaste of their former slaves the Nagas from Ahichatra,the Bunts (who speak Tulu). Similarly the Namboothiris were not part of the ancient Tamil community but descend from the Tulu Brahmins with Ahichatra root who came to work in the Chera temples.
Some Namboothris were present in Kerala from 8th century onwards while Nairs appeared in 10th century onwards only. Thrikodithanam inscription is the first such inscription which mentions the Nair presence in Kerala. But not as warriors but migrant drummers.
http://www.thrikodithanam.org/mural.htm
After the fall of the Chera kingdom in the 12th century the Northern most areas of Kerala was occupied by the various Tulu tribes and a kingdom called Mooshaka or Kolathiri kingdom was established at Kannur. Various Tulu tribes such as Nayara, Menava, Samantha Kuruba and Maralu appeared in Kerala who practiced Matriarchy. From Samanthas a Bunt tribe Kings of Kolathiri kingdom was selected.
Cochin and Venad were ruled by Tamils who practiced Patriarchal descendency ( Father to Son) till 1310 AD. The Tamils of Chera Pandya and Ay kingdoms were still powerful till the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 AD.
After the Malik Kafur invasion at 1310 AD Kerala was occupied by Tulu tribes ethnically different from Tamils. Various subcastes of Tulunadus Bunt (community} such as Nayara Menava Kuruba Samantha Maraalu etc. Among these Tulu tribes Samanthas (meaning equal to Kshatriyas) is a Naga tribe with Ahichatra/Nepal origin became the rulers. Kadamba] king Mayuravarma had brought Naga slaves from Nepal and the Naga kingdom of Uttarkhand called Ahichatra according to the records kept by the Tulunadus Shivally Brahmins called Grama Padhathi. Nair/ Bunt {community} of Tulunadu descend from the Nepalese Nagas. The same Nagas after 1310 Ad occupied Kerala with their Tulu writing system and Sanskrit of Namboothiris who were also a sub group of Tulu Brahmins. The Samantha Kshatriyas practiced Matriarchy Polyandry and worshipped Snakes. The Samanthas built live snake temples throughout Kerala called Sarpakkavu. These Naga rulers who occupied Kerala were primitive who often went stark Naked. Cochin King and his soldiers are depicted in Portuguese atlas wearing minimum dress.
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1700_1799/malabar/cochin/cochin.html
The opportunistic Portuguese invaders under Vasco Da Gama in 1498 AD sided with the primitive Nagas of Tulunadu origin.

Anonymous said...

The Portuguese suppressed the Tamils of Kerala who were the original inahbitants of Kerala. If the European colonial rulers had not come to Kerala at 1500s Dravdian Tamils would have had all the possibilitiy to get rid of the Tulu rule of Namboothris and Samanthas. But the European colonialism supported the Tulu rulers while supporting their bizarre customs such as Matriarchy and Polyandry .
The Portuguese organized a a big army of Villavar-Nadar people in the 16th century at Cochin with the help of the Mapilla Christians of Kerala. Vallikada Panicakrs led these armies. These Mapilla Christians had migrated from Bhagdad Iraq in the 9th century to Quilon ruled by Tamil Ay king Ayyandadikal Thiruvadikal. Tharisappalli plates issued by Ayyandikal has the signatures of recipients in Pahlavi,Kufic and Hebrew.The Mapilla or Syrian Christians married among the local girls hence called Mapilla(Son in Laws). The Persian/Iraqi Syrian Christians were of Nestorian faith of Eastern Orthodoxy. The Syrian Christians and the Portuguese Tamil army dominated the 16th century Kerala. The Portuguese soldiers had the habit of keeping multiple slave women, mistresses and wifes. This led to the emergence of a Mestizo (Portuguese-Indian) community in Kerala. The Mestizos had three subgroups Castizo (white blooded) Mestizo (mixed blooded) and Toepass (pure Indian). During the Portuguese period the Mestizos had vast estates and had become aristocrats of Kerala.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=LFy4pWUlnfwC&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=fort+cochin+Anjana+singh+mestizo&source=bl&ots=e17Q8A_8Tz&sig=RA5P3bPXLoK6WSPLiUJvp4xQAeo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=_wr3TpX4KouqrAfq-_noDw&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

The Syrian-Mapillas had mixed with these Mestizos and formed a large Inland Catholic community. The Inland Catholics called themselves Roman Catholics to differentiate themselves from the Latin Catholics. After the Portuguese left in 1660 AD, the heavily Portuguese mixed community of Kerala did not want to join the Dutch who were Protestants. So in 1662 Portuguese(Mestizo)-Syrian community formed a new sect called Syro-Malabar under the Pope. Some other Mestizo-Syrian community joined the Syro-Malankara sect under the Archbishop of Antioch Turkey in 1665. Syro-Malankara otherwise Jacobites were otherwise called Western Orthodox Christians of Kerala. These Syrian Christians supported the Dutch and British rulers and Tulu Nair/Samantha rulers leading to the decline of Tamil Dynasties.
In the 15th century when Vasco Da Gama came to Kerala Kerala had been still a Tamil speaking country having plenty of Tamil aristocrats living in Kerala.Thousands of Books printed by the Portuguese in Tamil otherwise called Linuga Malabar Tamul are still preserved in Copenhagen and other European Capitals. During the Portuguese period the Christians including Syrian Christians were using the Catechism written in alternate lines of Portuguese and Tamil written with Portuguese script. This was [[Lingua Malabar Tamul]]. After the Portuguese left only Tamil writing system was used by Kerals Christians. Below is a sample from Flos Sanctoram printed at Ambalakkadu near Angamaly at the Jesuit printing press in 1680 AD.
http://www.tidsskrift.dk/visning.jsp?markup=&print=no&id=101382
Mysteriously the large Tamil speaking Christian population of Angamaly , Quilon and Thalassery disappeared after 300 years of subjugation by the Europeans (Portuguese Dutch) who supported Tulu Bunt/Nairs and Nambudiris who originally migrated from Ahichatra in Uttarkhand/Nepal.

Anonymous said...

Valia Thambi Kunju Thambi Kathai Padal written during the life time of Marthanda Varma in 1750s mentions that the Tambimar the sons of the King called Pappu and Raman Thambi who were opponents of Marthandavarma. Pappu and Raman Thambi were protected by many hundred families of Nadanmar and Panikkanmar given to them by the late king. The King Marthandavarma himself was protected and saved by Ananda Padmanabhan Nadar alias Branthan Chanan. Branthan Chanan was assisted by a group of Nadar warriors. The Oral traditions of Travancore say that Branthan Chanan killed Velu Kuruppu a warrior belonging to the Thambimar side with a hand gun around 1730. The Ammachi Pilavu where Marthanda Varma hid while the Branthan was fighting the Nair and Kurup army while killing about 30 warriors. The close association the Nadars had with Aralvoimozhi Kurups is locally known. (CV Raman Pillai a Nair writer wrote the first Malayalam historical Novel claiming that Branthan Chanan was a Nair warrior disguised as a Nadar though he never explained why a Nair should disguise himself as Nadar.). Nadars of that era believed that Marthanda Varma will reinstate them as lords. But instead Marthanda Varma turned hostile to Nadars once he won the war and changed his Capital from the Nadar stronghold Padhmanabha Puram to Trivandrum. Numerous books written in the 18th century mention the warrior clans called Nadappanikkanmar who fought in the armies of Travancore along with Kurppu warriors.
After winning the war against Ettuveetu Pillamar (Vellala mixed Nairs) Marthandavarma banished all the remaining Pillamar to Maldives (Addu) while selling their women to fishermen as slaves.
The Cunning Marthandavarma instead of rewarding Nadars for their help deprived of their former Aristocratic position. Thus Marthandavarma removed all the Tamil aristocracy (Vellala and Villavar-Nadar) and replaced them with Tulu (Nair/Bunt) aristocracy from Kolathunadu (Kannur).
Marthandavarma with British help succeeded making Nadars as outlaws. Nadars were deprived of all the rights including wearing gold, building two storied houses, owning more than ten acres, women covering upperparst of body. (Nair women did not cover their body till the 19th century. Between 14th century to 19th century the primitive Tulu Bunt/Samantha Nairs ruled Kerala who practiced Matriarchy. While the Kings wore only loin cloth women did not cover their upper part of the body. But the Tamils who previously were wearing dress also were forced to go naked after Marthandavarmas period). After the invasion of Tippu Sulthan in 1886, the Northern Tulu kingdoms of Kolathiri (Kannur) and Samuthiri (Calicut) came to an end and a large exodus of Nairs who ranaway without a fight to Travancore. This increased the Nair population to 36 percent of Travancore which greatly strengthened the Tulu (Nair/Samantha) rulers of Travancore. After British made an alliance with the Travancores Dharmaraja in 1795 Travancore Queens openly supported Tulu-Sanskrit (Grantha) language of Nambudiris while banning Malayanma. The Travancore Queens assumed the title Bai to emphasise their Uttarpradesh/Ahichatra origins. Nadars were reduced to the level of slaves in the 19th century.

Anonymous said...

After the Dutch and British actively started supporting Tulu writing system used by Namboothris in 1815 the Christians started speaking Sanskrit Tulu language hitherto used only by the Namboothiris and Bunt/Nairs.
http://shivallibrahmins.com/tulu-language/tulu-language-and-script/n

German and Dutch missionaries actively started promoting the Tulu writing system and started teaching the Keralas Christians the Tulu writing system when the Church Mission Society was founded at Kottayam in 1815 AD. By promoting the Tulu writing system the British erased the Keralas Tamil past and banned the indigenous Tamil like language called Malayanma or Malayalam-Tamil (Lingua Malabar Tamul).

The British East India company did more harm to Nadars than any other foreign invaders. Nadars could not hold Government jobs in Kerala until British left. The British missionaries were part and parcel of the British Raj. British missionaries like Ringeltaube opened schools at Mayiladi in Kanyakumari in 1809. But Nadar converts were treated by the British with contempt. Many of the Nadars became Dacoits in this period. Chembulingam Nadar Kasi Nadar and Duraiyappa Nadars were famous dacoits during the 19th century Travancore.
Nadars had no rights under British who ruled Kerala with the help of Tamil and Tulu Brahmins. British banned all the ancient literature of Kerala including Sangam literature. British modified Keralas history according to their needs. Bitish claimed that Kerala was created by Parasurama and given to Nambudiris. Saint Thomas converted few of these Nambudiris to Christianity according to the European missionaries. But Sangam literatute never mentioned Parasurama or Nambudiris. Chrisitanity was not a known religion to the Tamils of the Chera kingdom. After 800 AD many Christian immigrants from Syria and Bhagdad and Persia came to Kerala. Still Christianity was not practiced by Malayalees until the 14th century when European priest Friar Jordanus Catalini succeeded in converting many at Quilon. The European claims that ancient Tamilakam (Kerala and Tamilnadu)had Christianity is merely political.

The European colonialism led to the near total extermination of the Villavar aristocracy in Kerala.

Anonymous said...

The European colonialism led to the near total extermination of the Nadalvar- Villavar aristocracy in Kerala.
In the 1836 census of Travancore Cochin Nadar community was 8.4 percent of Keralas population. However there was a steep decline of Nadar population in the 19th eentury Kerala. Many Nadars are believed to have integrated themselves with the Marhtoma Syrian Christiantiy in the 19th century especially at Quilon Pathanamthitta Kottayam and Cochin.This is the result of British paramountcy which supported Nairs and Madras Brahmins in Kerala. In the 1930 Census Nadars had shrunken to 3.4 percent of Keralas population. At 200 Nadar Chrisitans make about 1.04 percent while the Hindu Nadars could be around 1-1.5 percent thus making about 2.5 percent of Keralas population.
Sathyanesan Nadar alias Sathyan was a famous Malalam actor from the Malayalee nadar community. Most of the Bishops and Moderators of the South Kerala CSI Diocese are from Nadar community. The CSI church of South Kerala is now in communion with the Marthoma Syrian church.
The Malayali Nadars now concentrated in Trivandrum and Quilon districts lack the political clout or unity so there is no minister from this community at present.Kerala Nadar Mahajana Sangam and VSDP are social organizations of Malayali Nadars. Malayali Nadars are quite backward socio economically even today.

Johncy Panicker said...

Hello...My name is Johncy Panicker and I am a member of the so called Vallikkada panicker Familly. I found that Mr.Anonymous says that my familly was from nadar caste. If you concentrated on the title "Panicker" and the "Valli" then you will feel this argument as a right one. But there are many other variations also. Some scholars who had made some studies on the Vallikkada Panickers states that they are not from nadar caste rather they were the families who migrated from the ancient"Bangal" to the village in the name of the godess Valli in "Chola Mandalam". The village diety was Valli.BUt it doesnt means that our diety was valli,rather it might be kali,because we had a Kalari where we placed our familly diety as the Kalri Paradevatha or main diety. In kerala the Kalari paradevathas were either Lord Shiva or Mother kali since both are gods of wars.
As I mentioned the studies says that we migrated to Cholamandalam from Bangal.The reason for leaving bangal was the increasing conversion of hindus into budhism there around the middle of the 4th century( that is the family left bangal by the middle of the 4th century). Don't know when they reached the Cholamandalam. Anyhow it might took centuries that the family reached the Cholamandalam, since the transportation facilities were not existed as like today. we have to travel either by walk or using some animal like horse. Also it was not we planned to migrate in cholamandalam and started the passage. Rather we travelled looking for a better place to live and so it might took years and may be centuries to reach cholamandalam. (Also if you looked at the migration of arriyan people to south then you can find that it was in between 3rd and 6th ceturies).
Also i forgot to mention that these studies reffer us as one of the arriyan familly who migrated to the south.

Johncy Panicker said...

It was due tothe village in the Cholamandalam that we got the name Valli with us. Even in our familly also the familly members reffer or used to call each other as Vallikombans means the people from the land of Valli( in ancient Malayalam the word kombu is used to reffer a placeor Desam, for example, Kizhakombu is a place in Ernakulam Dist. which simply means the place which comes at the east ie,Kizhakku+Kombu = Kizhakombu).Anyhow it was only after reaching kerala only our family members started to call as Vallikomban.
They again states that this familly was very much skilled in some areas like martial arts and treatment ie, Vaidiyam.They even practiced the "Mathravadam" and "Kuruthi" even after accepting christianity. This familly members migrated from the village called valli to the thulunadu and it is considered that it was the reason that the Kalari established by us was a Thulunadan style and it was a Kuzhikkalari not a tharakalari.It was after the second chera invansion that we are brought to kerala by the then ruled Chera King for the martial service. It was the Cheraking whogave us the title Panicker.It was Kodungallor where we lived in the starting and it is considered that we got converted to christianity during this period( The portugees came in the 16th century only and we were christians by the time the portugees era). After that my fimily migrated to Vallikada, place near Arakuzha in ernakulam dist. and the place got the name because of the presence of the vallikada Family. At that time arakuzha was under the Vadakkumkoor Kingdome and the family was continued serving for the king,but this time it was Vadakkumkoor Kings. The last Panicker who served the king was the chieftain of the Vadakkumkoor army and in the Kerala hystory it was the war with the Vadkkumkoor which made the Marthanda varmas army to flee from the battle field. They made a second attempt, but this time it was the irayimman thambi's brillance which won the game.He contacted the King's brother and offered him the Kingdome if he and his supporting members in the army supported Travankoor, and he accepted the offer.When the King came toknow about this he and his familly left the Kingdome and migrated to Madhhurai since he has a Pandiyan Ancestry. In the battle field the vadakkumkoor army split into two and one part supported the travancore. Also they got the news that the king abandoned his conutry which made the Vallikkada Panicker and his army to surrender.

Johncy Panicker said...

After this event there happened several events which made us to take a dicision of leaving the place and also toleave all the importance or social status they earned..

Now I have some questions to Mr.Anonymous.

Johncy Panicker said...

1. you only mentioned that we were converted tochristians by the portugees,and the familly members are syrian christians. Dont you feel some missmatch here. If we were converted to christians by the portugees then why didn't we accepted the Latine Right rather we were accepted by the syrian christians or the nasranis.Its true that there was a Syro Malabar sect which accepted the Catholicism. But eventually you can see almost all the members (except the Karikkodu Panicker familly and the Panicker veetil family all others are orthodox (means both jacobite and orthodox sect) belivers. Here the Karikkodu Panicker was the brother of the last Vallikkada panicker of Arakuzha and the Panickerveetilfamily is the family of mar Ivaniose who started the Malankara Catholic Sect. Both these families accepted Catholicsm much later after the portugees erra.

Johncy Panicker said...

Second there was not much christian panicker families during the portugees erra. The Vallikada Panicker Family was the only christian family with a "Panickership" in cochin. And in the Synode of Diamper(Udayamperoor Sunnahadose) Which happened in the 15th cetury ,there is clear statement about the arrival of the Arkadeakon ( the chief of the Kerala Christian, Arkadeakon = Jadikku KArthavyan). It states that he arrived with an army of 100 christian soldiers with the leadership of two energetic and couragious persons from cochin with the title of Panickers. They were from Vallikkada apnicker familly since they were the only christian panicker familly in cochin at that time.Then how can you say that he supported portugees since the Koonen Cross oath was tookagainst portugees and The Pope

Johncy Panicker said...

3. If we were supported the portugees then how the orthodox sect accepted as there part since by the koonen cross oath they declared there independance from the portugees,means they went aginst portugees. And it is logical that even after portugees erra also the orthodox sect willnot accept us as there part since we supported the portugees. Also it is important that we stood in the orthodox sect of syrian christians who were one of the aristocratic sect in kerala,not in Latine Catholic sect.

Johncy Panicker said...

now leave the christian part. My next question is, it is true that nadar caste is one of the major caste in Pandya Dynasty(means south thamilnadu).but not in kerala. After the caste system established, they were considered as one of the lower caste in kerala. So do you think that the upper caste people will give or accept such a higher social status for the Vallikkada panickers if he has a nadar caste ancestry.?That also in an erra of the most brudal form of cast system existed in kerala

Johncy Panicker said...

To understand this one need to understand the importance and social status of vallikkada panickers.
As i mentioned earlier, the vallikkada family was one of the first Christian families who got the "Panicker" title.The title Panicker was common in nadar cast in kanyakumari district, and they used to give this title for the teachers of martial arts. But in Cherakingdome or Kerala, only for the expertise ofany art used to awarded that title. It was used to provide in field of Kalripayattu,Jyothishm,vaidiam,etc.
If you learned the kerala hystory you can see several proofs for providing the title "Panicker" for many persons from Nair caste and Ezhava caste. Even brahmin families also used to get the title. So seeing the Panicker title one cannot say that he has a nadar ancestry.

Johncy Panicker said...

I already said how we got the familyname Valli with us.We started to known as Vallikkada Panicker or Valli Panicker as the persons came from vallidesam. Gradually our members also started to call each other as Vallikombanmar.

This purticular Valli desam was there on the shores of bay of Bangal and included in Cholamandalam.

Johncy Panicker said...

Again,
The vallikada panicker was allowed to "keepmunkudumi" and was called as "Thamburan"/ "panickerachan" by others. It was a period where everyone needed permission for everything,even for wearing dress also several restrictions based on caste was there.So keeping a munkudumi like a brahmin who has a very high social status is not an easy thing. Even thogh we were converted tochristians the nadar ancestry will make some oakwardness for other high caste people toaccept us. Also the term "achan" was used to reffer a arriyan person in those days.

Johncy Panicker said...

Again we used to give three feasts for any function in our house, 1st oine is for the brahmins and king, second for the uppercaste aristocratic people and the third for the lowercast. If we have a nadar connection atleast the first level will not happen.

Next as i metioned before the kalari was a kuzhikalari,not atharakalari. Only uppercaste people are allowed tohave a kuzhikalari.

Johncy Panicker said...

Next one is the style we followed is thulunadan, it was not any southern style kalripayattu. You can identify the style of kalarippayattu fromthe major weapon used in each style. The major and dangerous weapon in vadakkan /northern styleis urumi, in southern it is sord,simillerly in thulunadan which ios considered as top class style is spear. In our kalari also the practice of spear is considered as the top. which shows that it was a thulunadan style and this people also has a connection with thulunadu.

Anonymous said...

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Antique-Print-INDIA-MESTIZO-WOMAN-COSTUME-Nieuhof-1682-/230776479893?pt=Art_Prints&hash=item35bb59a095

A Mestizo woman at 1672.

Portuguese organised Nadappanickars under the leadership Vallikada Panickar which was stationed at Peringuzha near Moovattupuzha. Valli is the Tamil goddess the family Goddess of Nadars.

The Porutuguese succeeded in converting the traditional Tamil Villavar/Nadalvar Nada Panickars to join the Roman Catholic fold. Similarly they converted the Meenavars in the Latin Catholic fold.

However the Portuguese promoted only Mestizoss who descended from Portuguese themselves and the Syrian immigrants who immigrated to India after Delhi Sultanate was establsihed in 1206.

The Tamil Villavar and Panickanmar were still dominant when Portuguese came in 1498. The Villavar Vattom king disappeared. The Vallikada Panickars mixed with the Mestizos and lost their Dravidian culture.

The sudden disappearance of Tamils from Kerala was between 16th and 18th century.

European colonialism gave them Syrian Identity and Roman culture.

Anonymous said...

The Aryan and Naga tribes who originally migrated to Tulunadu from Ahichatram (Rampur in Uttranchal) in the Indo-Nepalese border during the rule of Kadamba king Mayuravarma in 345 AD. The King of Ahichatram sent Nagas as slaves to serve under southern kingdoms under the leadership of Nepalese/Uttranchal Brahmins (Shivally and Nambudiri).
The Tulu tribes had been the arch enemies of ancient Tamils of Kerala and the ancient Tamil literature mention them as Vaduga (Vada+ Naga or Northern Nagas). The Nagas and Aryans practiced Matriarchy but Malayalis (a Tamil subclan called Malayar or Hill people) never practiced Matriarchy prior to 1310. Tulunadu had Matriarchy from the fourth century onwards.
Keralolpathy mentions a Tulu prince called Kulasekhara who invaded Kerala with a large Nair army under the leadership of Padamala Nair. The Tulu Kulasekhara had the help of Arabs (Jonaka) as mentioned in Keralolpathy. This Tulu Kulasekhara (a title shared by Pandyas Cheras and Alupas) was not a historical figure but might have been a brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan (Kavi Alupendra 1110 to 1160)). Thus the Later Chera kingdom of Tamils was defeated by a Mythical Tulu invader called Kulasekhara who reigned Kerala for a brief period ie 1102 to 1124-30) and was called Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal. Kulasekahra the Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal thus established the first Matriarchal kingdom of Tulunad /Ahichatram people at Valarpattinam near Kannur in 1102 AD. This Kulasekhara should not be confused with the Tamil Kulsekhara alias Kulasekhara Alwar who established the Later Chera dynasty in Kerala in 800 AD. The Tulu Kulasekhara is often mentioned as the last Cheraman Perumal in Kerala legends. The Padamala Nair allegedly had an affair with the Queen and was executed by the Cheraman (Vadakkan) Perumal. The Tulu invader was forced out of Kerala because of growing opposition. The Bunt/Nairs and Nambudiris who practiced Matriarchy thus first established their kingdom at Kannur after the defeat of Later Chera Dynasty of Tamils in 1102.
The last king of Tamil Later Chera Dynasty could be Rama Varma Kulasekhara who might migrated to Venad . The Villavar (Chera) and Ay Dynasties joined together and survived between the 1102 to 1310 period at Venad at Southern Kerala.
Thus Kannur was under the Matriarchal Tulu tribes while the rest of Kerala were still Tamils. When the Pandyan kingdom became dominant in the 12th century Kerala was under the Tamil rule once again.
Kerala was integral part of Pandyan Kingdom when the Delhis invasion happened in 1310 under Malik Kafur. After this invasion all the Tamil Kingdoms came to an end. Tamil used to be the language of Kerala before the Delhi attack.

Anonymous said...

Kerala was integral part of Pandyan Kingdom when the Delhis invasion happened in 1310 under Malik Kafur. After this invasion all the Tamil Kingdoms came to an end. Tamil used to be the language of Kerala before the Delhi attack.
The rule of Matriarchal dynasties with Tulunadus Bunt sub clans (Samantha, Nayara Menava, Kuruba, Maralu) started in Kerala after 1310. After the fourteenth century Kerala was ruled by Bunt (Samantha Nair) rulers with a North Indian culture and and Tulunadu culture. The Nambudiri Brahmins who of Ahichatra Madasthana origin ruled Kerala and had matriarchal relationship of the four major Samantha rulers ie Travancore, Cochin, Calicut and Kannur.

Thus when the Portuguese arrived at 1498 Kerala was under the Bunt/Samantha princes who practiced matriarchy. But majority of the Malayalees practiced Patrilineal descendcy and not Matriarcy. The Tulu aristocracy who practiced Matriachy ruled over large Patriachal Tamil population.The Tamil/Malayali cultute of earlier era had been suppressed and their Tamil like language called Malayanma (Lingua Malabar Tamul or Malayalam -Tamil) which disappeared during the colonial rule. Until the arrival of British Malayanma was used by the people. Portuguese and Dutch printed in Malayanma which though used Tamil scripts was different from modern Tamil. British banned Malyanma and promoted Tulu script to write Malayalam leading to the disappearance of all the traditional books of Kerala written in Malayanma/ Tamil . Copenhagen museum even today preserves Flos Sanctorum printed in Tamil at Ambalakatta near Angamaly at Cochin.
Tamils joined the Portuguese and eventually got mixed and formed a Mestizo community. Mestizos and their subgroups called Castizo, Topasi were ruled by Portuguese Fidalgos. Mestizos made Christianity a Major religion in Kerala. Mestizo-Tamil people printed books in alternate lines of Tamil and Portuguese (Lingua Malabar Tamul). The immigrants from Syria and Antioch joined these to form a strong Catholic society in Kerala. The Mestizos though encouraged Tamil but allied with the Matriarchal Tulu dynasties thus further weakening the Tamil Dravidian people in Kerala. The Mestizos commanded the Nairs armies derived from Perumpadappu and Edappally in the Dutch –Portuguese war in 1660.

The Portuguese initially offered protection to the Tamil temples but eventually succeeded in converting them to Roman Catholicism. The mixture of Portuguese with Tamils and othere middle eastern immigrants formed a Mestizo community in Kerala. The European colonialism suppressed Dravidian customs and promoted European and Middle Eastern customs.
Vallikada Panickkar of Kavana Periguzha led the Tamil armies for the Portuguese. Vallikada Panickar worshiped the Hindu Goddess Valli who was the Goddess of ethnic Tamils.Similarly Maranadu Panickar at Quilon joined the Portuguese. In Kerala Nadappanikkar or Panickar used to be the the title of the Martial art trainers during the Pandyan and Chera era. Panickars joined various communities after the fall of old Tamil Kingdoms.

Dona Beatriz Natover was a lady lived in the early 16th century at Kodungaloor. Her title indicates she was a Nadavar from Kodungaloor a Tamil aristocratic woman from old Pandyan or Chera dynasties. Felipe Perstrelo Da Mesquita was a Portuguese aristocrat who came in the Sixteenth century to India. Felipe Perstrelo Da Mesquita who initially became the Vicar of Dona Beatriz Natovers Temple and started teaching there as mestre escola or School master eventually convert her and adopt a Portugeuse name. . Felipe Perstrelo Da Mesquitas Gravestone built by Dona Beatriz Natover still exist at In the Mural Art Museum at Thrissur.
.
Nadar or Nadalvar is an ancient aristocratic title from the old Tamil Kingdoms ie Chera, Chola and Pandyan Kingdoms. Nadalvar, Nadalvan, Nadavar, Nadavaru (Kannada) Nadava (Tulu nadu) Nalavar (Sri Lanka) and Nadakkamar are the variants of Nadar title.
Natover could be a Portuguese version of Nadavar.

Anonymous said...

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Nethaji Marthandan said...

to mr brisk,Iam 7th generation of Chandra panicka marthanda Nadan., this can be proved by Kulasekarapatinam & Achanpaadu Inscription in tirunelveli District. my grandmaa use to say through poietical song that pantham anaivathenna kunjurama' panivellam peithathu alloo thamburane. if you have the entire song please give me. my email id is tsrnmarthandan@gmail.com
and also Nawab title have being given to Chandrapanika marthanda Naadavan's yonger Brother Nawab Kumaraveera Marthandan which my elders use to say that as he saved the life of nawab they gave this title. If anyone know about this kindly provide information.
TSRN.Marthandan.

Anonymous said...

Southern Villavar titles of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Villavar (Villavarayar) Vanavar (Vanathirayar Vanavarayar) Malaiyar Enathirayar (Eyinan+Adhi) Maveli Maran
Nadalvar (Nadavar Nadava Nadakkamar) were the Villavar aristocracy which ruled the country.
Seagoing supporting clan was called Meenavar.
Northern Villavar titles of Andhra and Northern India
Bana Mahabali Balija Banajiga
The Northern Bana kingdom disintegrated when more and more Nagas and Gangas came from Orissa and Ganjetic plains.
It is ironic that the Pandyan and Chera kingdoms were brought down by the northern counterparts of the Villavars the Banas.
The Pandyan Kingdom which was defeated by Malik Kafur was occupied by the Balija Naicks and Banas in 1378.

Shanar or Chanar used to be the common name for Nadars. Shanar means Chieftain.
Shanar Ghaut or Shanar Malai is the ancient hideout of Nadars when the Pandyan Kingdom is attacked. Shanar Malai is situated near Tenkasi the ancient Pandyan Royal house .
Travancore state Manual page 14.
http://www.archive.org/stream/travancorestate00aiyagoog#page/n60/mode/2up/search/shanar+
Sanarapalayam is a place North of Madras. This could be one of the Sanar army camps of the later Pandyan Empires northern borders till 1310 AD.
Sanarpalayam are found near Thiruchengode, Perunthurai, Erode, Dharapuram, Gopichetti Palayam at the Northern borders of Pandyan Kingdom.
Palayam in Tamil means Army Camp or Barracks.
Similarly in the Chola country Sannanallur is found near Nannilam.
Nadalvar is the title for the aristocracy of the Villavar people . Nadalvar Nadava Nadar Nattavar and Nattar are some of the varriants.
Nattavar
DONA BEATRIZ NATOVER (NADAVAR) the last princess of Kodungaloor, the Capital of Chera kingdom.
Thrissur Museum contains a Gravestone of a Portuguese Noble man called Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita from the 16th century erected by his wife Dona Beatriz Natover. Dona Beatriz Natover was a indigenous Malayali woman who had a temple at Kodungaloor the medival capital of Chera Dynasty. Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita initially was protecting this temple as Vicar and he was also a school teacher Mestre Escola (School master) in the school run by Dona Beatriz Natover. Ultimately Dona Beatriz Natover was converted to Christianity and acquired the Christian name Dona Beatriz. Perhaps she is from the Chera or Pandian aristocracy with title Nadavar of Kerala.

Anonymous said...

http://www.himalmag.com/advertise/5131-lost-rulers-of-the-malabar-coast.html
Tax collectors called Nattavar is mentioned in five inscriptions from Pennai and Gaddilam river valleys at South Arcot under the Vijaya Nagara Naickers in 1572-1573 period.
PA269&lpg=PA269&dq=nattavar&source=bl&ots=I0OZ2JUwE0&sig=6gvEO-lgRDKUGqWBmSQpRgfE-eM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=p6b1UMKsN4bhlAWWm4H4Bg&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=nattavar&f=false
Mannargudi inscription at 1239 AD also mention Tax collectors called Nattavars.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2jMg8K5dPZUC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=nattavar++inscription&source=bl&ots=wRekUTo0mU&sig=xu7DnqF9gZ_LJCEW79Du6Qv8Y4c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=z6f1UJy6O87VkwXp4oGQAQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=nattavar%20%20inscription&f=false
Nattavarof Idaiyaru is mentioned in South Arcot as the heads of Nadu in an inscription dated 1572 to 85.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2H4PGhFB9ScC&pg=PA291&lpg=PA291&dq=nattavar++inscription&source=bl&ots=5fO9GDfHfC&sig=-jBvSageXld_YxcSzygxLPX25PM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=e671ULnECYmkkgWcsICoBA&ved=0CC4Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=nattavar%20%20inscription&f=false
Thiruvaipadi Nattavar is mentioned in an North Arcot inscription of 1225 AD

Nadalvar
Mahavamsa mentions Akalanka Nadalvar who was a general of the Pandyan king who resisted the Sinhalese general Lanka Pura Dandanatha in the civil war at 1167.
Page 252
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8SSA-KGBgWoC&pg=PA252&lpg=PA252&dq=Akalanka+Nadalvar&source=bl&ots=PheXJ2eKSh&sig=ss4C9HVdUznaeyiDJ6SRwKUE4Uk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i7P1UImzHc7IrQeIpoDICQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Akalanka%20Nadalvar&f=false

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lankapura_Dandanatha
Konga Mangala Nadalvar Kalavandi Nadalvar
Kilamangala Nadalvar are some other Nadalvars mentioned in the Mahavamsha.

Anonymous said...


A252&dq=Akalanka+Nadalvar&source=bl&ots=PheXJ2eKSh&sig=ss4C9HVdUznaeyiDJ6SRwKUE4Uk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i7P1UImzHc7IrQeIpoDICQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Akalanka%20Nadalvar&f=false

Maran Maravarman Enathi (Eyinan +Athi) Rayar and Vanathi (Vanavan +Athi) Rayar Alwar Sevanthi are some other titles of Nadars. Vanavar and Eyinar are Villavar clans.
Numerous Pandyan inscriptions mention the titles Maran and Maravarman
Nammalvar Maran was a Vaishnavaite saint and also a minor prince under the Pandyan king.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nammalvar
Enathi Nayanar was a Vaishanavaite saint who is mentioned as Ezhakula Sanrar Enathi. Enathi Nayanar was an exponent in Swordsmanship and was the teacher of Martial arts to the princes.
http://www.shaivam.org/naeenaat.html

Vanathi Rayars are mentioned as Maveli Vanathi Rayars, Pillai Kulasekhara Vanathi Rayar (Pillai means Prince) who was a vassal of Pandyan king mentioned in Madurai Meenakshi Kshetram inscription (1268) at Ponkunnam in Kerala.
http://kanjnjirappallikkaran.blogspot.in/2010/12/blog-post.html
Villavar/Nadalvar/Vanathirayar aristocracy ruled the Later Chola kingdom when they integrated the ethnically different Naga Kalabhra Vaduga(Andharpradesh) and Ganga(Gauda or Gangetic belt) and Kalinga(Orissa) people.But eventually Chola kingdom fell in the hands of Vaduga when Kulothunga 1 of Eastern Chalukya kingdom was crowned in 1070. Eventually the Villavar Nadalvar power declined.The Vaduga dominated Chola kingdom became the arch enemies of the other Villavar Kingdoms (Chera and Pandyan kingdoms).
Vellai Nadan inscription of Kallidai Kurichi in 1453 mentions the the banishment of Vellai Nadans during the Vijayanagara Naicker era. About two hundred Vellai Nadans were hanged.


Vijayanagara rule under Lakkana Naickan tried to rule Pandyan kingdom with a mixed dynasty of Villavar-Muthariyar between 1451 to 1499.
( Sundara Tol Maha Vilivanathi Rayar, Kaleiyar Somanar, Anjatha Perumal and Muttarasa Thirumalai Maha Vilivanathi Rayar were the four rulers. Vilivanathi =Villavar Muttarasa= Mutharaiyar or Kalabhrar) Few Bana rulers were also appointed by the Naickers to indirectily to rule the Pandyan and Chola Kingdoms. Thirumalirunjolai Mahabalivana was appointed ruler of Madurai in 1477 while Bana chieftain named Virapratapa Sundarattoludaiyan Mahabali Vanadhiraya ruling in Conjivaram (Kanchipuram) in 1469 AD)

Anonymous said...

Vijayanagara Naickers were the mixture of Naga Naicks of of Orissa who had mixed with the Banas hence called themselves Balijas.
Thus Telugu Bana-Balija - Naicks exiled the original Villavar/Nadalvar(Enathirayar Vanathi Rayar Maran) Tamil dynasty of Tamils in the 15th century.

The original Villavar/Nadalvar dynasty withdrew to Tenkasi and nearby Shanar Malai (Ghaut).
At Kerala when the Villavar Chera kingdom was occupied by Ahichatra Naga people from Uttranchal /Nepal. The last Tamil King Veera Udaya Marthanda Varma (title Veera Pandyan because of his mother was Pandyan) of the Chera-Ai dynasty was forced to abdicate in favour of two Tulu-Nepalese Naga princesses called Attingal Rani and Kunnumel Rani send by the Kolathiri ruler (Bunt/Nair/Samantha) of Kannur. Thus the last Tamil Chera(Villavar)-Ay dynast was replaced by a Tulu-Nepalese dynasty which practiced Matriarchy at 1314. A line of Tamil Chera-Ay dynasty appeared at Thirunelveli district and ruled from Kalakkadu, Cheran Madevi and Kallidaikurichi. Boothala Veera Udaya Marthanda Varma of Venads Chera-Ai was defeated by a Tenakasi Pandyan Sri Vallabhan. By 1545 Both Pandyan and Chera-Ai dynasties were defeated by Vijayanagar armies.
In the 1500s the Villavar Vattom (Villar Vattom) Kingdom was supported by Portuguese. Vallikada Panicker served as the General of the Portuguese army at Kerala.
http://www.expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html
From Portuguese period Nairs were European allies. In the 15th century army of Portuguese was made of Christians and Nairs.
Perumpattu Sevvanthi Nadan inscription of 1662 at Vikramasingapuram mentions the social antagonism of Vellalas who had joined the Naickers.

Anonymous said...

In 1730 Branthan Chanan alias Anantha Padmanabhan Nadar led the Chanar armies supporting Marthanda Varma in his struggle against Thambimar his rivals.
At 1785 after the defeat of Northern Naga Kingdoms of Calicut and Kannur by Tippu Sultan an exodus of Nairs to Travancore occurred.
In the 19th century Villavar people were harassed by the Nairs . Some opportunistic Tamils had joined the Nairs. The British colonial rulers till 1800s printed books in Tamil in Kerala.
http://www.hindu.com/2005/10/14/stories/2005101407670300.htm
The British changed their stance in the 1800s and started promoting Tulu writing system of Nairs and Nambudiris. The Tamil like language of Kerala, The Malayanma was banned by British. British historians assisted by some Brahmins fabricated stories to claim that Kerala was never a Dravidian Tamil Villavar country.
The British historians assisted by Madras Brahmin scholors promoted legends that Kerala was never a Tamil country. According to them Kerala was created by Parasurama who gave it to Nambudiris. Some Nambudiris converted to Christianity (Christianity was not a known religion to Tamils until the European missionaries such as Jordanus Catalani in the 13th century). Thus the original inhabitants of Kerala were not Tamil Villavars but Ahichatram Naga/Nambudiri and Christians. (Nairs and Nambudiris were not Tamils but migrants from Ahichatram).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahichatra
When the British Diwans such as Mecaulay and Monroe were ruling between 1795 to 1730 the Villavar people had to face atrocities against them.
Rest is history.





Anonymous said...

CHERA COINS DISPLAYED THE BOW AND ARROW AND PALM TREE
Chera Dynasty was that of Villavar/Nadalvar Kings. The Cheras called themselves Villavar Kon and they were supported by Villavar subcastes such as Villavar, Malayar and Vanavar. Meenavars were the ancient subcastes of Tamil Villavar people.
The Northern counterparts of the Villavar people were Banas who formed the Bana Kingdom and Alupas Pandyan kingdom. Banas had the title Mahabali while the Villavar had the title Maveli. The Villavar titles were Nadalvar (Nadavar, Nadalvar Nadar) Vanavar (Vanathirayar Vanavarayar) Enathirayar(Eyinan+Adhi) Villavar(Villavarayar) Malayar Maran or Mara Nadar etc. The Villavar people controlled most of the South India. The Villavar aristocracy was called Nadazhwar.
The Chera Coins displayed Bow and Arrow insignia alongwith Palm Tree of the Villavars . The Villavar people were involved in the cultivation and harvesting the Palm trees from time immemorial. On some Chera coins there was images resembling Pile of coconuts were seen on the reverse side.
http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?topic=19630.0
Villavar insignia Palm Tree and Bow and Arrow were seen almost all the Chera Coins.
http://www.ebay.in/itm/ANCIENT-INDIA-1005-AD-KONGU-CHERAS-BOW-PALM-TREE-COPPER-COIN-RARE-C-/260866251175
Sun, Moon, Flag Post and Elephants were inscribed too in the Chera coins.
Ummattur Chiefs, a branch of Kongu Cheras who ruled until 14th century even after the fall of Mahodayapuram Cheras issued many copper coins.
http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,19630.msg132765.html?PHPSESSID=3e1f2438d905308d1c17e619f82b87a5#msg132765
Some of the Ancient Chera Coins displayed Hill insignia of Malayar along with their official Bow and Arrow and Palm tree. Rarely Chera Coins displayed the Fish insignia of the Meenavar people.
http://poetryinstone.in/tag/malaiyaman
Kerala meant Kera = Coconut + Alam = Field
All the Villavar kings The Cheras, Pandyas and Alupas Shared Kulasekhara title.
KULA meant lineage or Bunch of Coconuts. SEKHARAN meant collector or Protector.
KULASEKHARAN might mean the Collector of Coconut Bunch.
Kula=Bunch of Cocoanuts Sekharan=Collector.
The Chera coins always displayed the Bow and Arrow and Palm tree the Royal emblem of the Villavar people.

Anonymous said...

CHANAR KASU OR VILLU KASU OF THE CHERA EMPIRE
After the fall of Chera Empire (1102 AD) and the Pandyan Empire(1310) the minting of SANAR KASU or VILLU KASU might have stopped.
However the Sanar Kasu or Villu Kasu was still in usage even after the fall of Villavar Kingdoms in the fourteenth century. Since the original Chanar Kasu or Villukasu was not available a foreign gold coin from Venis was substituted for the Chanar Kasu. Still the foreign Italian gold coin was called CHANAR KASU.
During the Portuguese Era the Venetian Gold Ducats or Sequins were used as a substitute for the Sanar Kasu.
http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/yw/2002/03/16/stories/2002031600100200.htm
http://www.indianetzone.com/22/venetian_coins_south_india.htm
The Venetian sequins displayed St.Mark standing before the Doge, the Venetian Prince and inbetween them was a Cross on the obverse side. On the reverse side of the coin two bow like curved marks were there. British scholors tried to explain why people called it Sanar Kasu because people simply mistook the Doge standing before the cross as a Shanar standing before a Palm tree.
Edgar Thurston like all the other European reasearchers usually writes about Nadars in a disparaging way. European researcers though lacked knowledge in Dravidian language and culture they were effectively assisted by Madras Brahmins. Edgar Thurston and his assistant Kandur Rangachari mentions about the Shanar Coin and maintains that it was only a Venetian Sequin mistaken for a Sanar Kasu.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Erin3nkU3ZUC&pg=PA367&lpg=PA367&dq=castes+and+tribes++thurston+shanar+coin&source=bl&ots=1L_-BsqgjC&sig=UFOgoo60JcoF9fofcErOlkD5ahY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PIGFUYb1PMnorAeZhIHwBw&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%20shanar%20coin&f=false
In the Portuguese Goa Sanar-Kasu was used after 1500s. Perhaps the Goans mistook the Venetian Secchino as a Sanar Kasu too. Though Christians Goans perhaps mistook the cross for a Palm Tree and the Doge standing opposite to St Mark, a Shanar. Hence the Goans called it Shanar Kasu too.
http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/albert-romer-frey/a-dictionary-of-numismatic-names--their-official-and-popular-designations-hci/page-33-a-dictionary-of-numismatic-names--their-official-and-popular-designations-hci.shtml
Other explanation is that the Gold Sanar Kasu otherwise called Villu Kasu had been in usage for many thousand years during the Chera Period and had been a major currency in India and people found a substitute for it in the Venetian Sequins.
In the 19th century when British administration was set up in Thirunelveli a group of Nadars met the Tinnevely collector claiming Royal descent as vanquished Kshatriyas. They claimed that they were the fallen Dravidian Kshatriyas who descended from the Pandyan Cheran and Cholan ie the Tamil Tripartite Kingdoms. Shanar claimed that their ancestors had issued Gold coins called Sanan Kasu. When the Nadar were asked to produce a gold coin they brought a wrong coin ie a Venetian Drachm.
Nobody has actually seen a Gold Villu Kasu or Sanan Kasu from the Chera Pandyan period. But many Chera Copper Coins with Palm tree and Bow and Arrow emblem of the Villavar people does exist.

Anonymous said...

The pandian kings are belonging to maravar caste only.All the people in the world knew this.

VILMEEN KODI said...

THE INVADERS OF VILLAVAR KINGDOMS

The Villavar-Nadalvar-Bana dynasty is many thousand year old. Naga invaders (Maravar, Eyinar, Aruvalar Oviar, Oliar and Parathavar) appeared only in the third Tamil Sangham period between 200 BC to 200 AD.
Mahabharatham(1500 BC to 950 BC)mentioned Pandya kingdom and calleds its king Saranga Dwajan (Bow flagged King=Villavar clan) and also Malaya Dwaja Pandyan (Hill flagged King=Villavar subgroup Malayar). Various Bana dynasties are mentioned much more earlier.

The Bana-Villavar dynasty of Nadalvar(Nadavaru Nadavar Nadavan Nadar Nadan Nador) is the most ancient dynasty of India.Villavar subgroups are
Vanavar (Bana Vanar) Malayar (Malayaman) Villavar (Villavarayar Villuperaraiyar, Villuperadi) and Meenavar the sea going cousins of Villavars (Only ancient Meenavar are Villavars cousins).

In the Tamil Country Pandyan Kingdom was formed after this period. Mahabharatha Pandya country with capital at Madurai Most of the Chera, Chola and Pandya territory along with Southern Karnataka and Andrapradesh. In the laterdays ancient Pandya Kingdom was broken into various Villavar and Bana Kingdoms.

VILLAVAR KINGDOMS
1)CHERA Kingdom ruled by Villavar Kon Panicker(Panicka Nadan Nadappanickan were the Martial arts trainers. Nadavar (Natover) aristocracy Mel-Nattar Chera dynasty Chanar Channa Thalai mentioned in Tharisappalli Sasanam as administrators of Chera country Villava Nadan aristcrats
2)CHOLA country ruled by Vanavar subgroup Nadalvar were aristcrats Enadis were the military Generals
3)PANDYA country ruled by Mara Nadalvar Enathi Rayar MAVELI Vanathi Rayars aristocrats Chanar Santor soldiers tax collectors and Administrators. Maveli Nelveli Seeveli were titles

BANA KINGDOMS

1) ALUPAS PANDYAN KINGDOM of Tulunadu ruled by NADAVA
2) KADAMABA OF BANAVASI ruled by BANA SANTARA
3) BANA KINGDOM ruled by MAHABALI VANATHI RAYAR

NAGA were originally inhabitants of Northern India and Central India from the banks of GANGES. ARYAN and NAGA people were the ancient enemies of the Villavar-Bana rulers. Ancient Tamil literature called the NAGA as VADUGA (VADA + NAGA). ARYAN NAGA language was DEVANAGARI ancient form of Hindi. Most Naga invaders originally talked Prakrit (ancient form of Hindi or Devanagari.

The Nagas were the enemies of the Villavar Kings(Chera Chola Pandyan) Karikalan fought and suppressed Oviar while Pandyan Nedunchezhian fought the Parathavar and defeated them.

Aryans and Nagas were the enemies of the Villavar-Bana kingdoms. Vilavars Northern cousins were Bhils and Banas. Banas form Rajput and Jat clans. The Northern Cousins of Meenavar subgroup of Villavars is Meena who founded the Matsya Kingdom. Thus Bhils Bana (Jat Rajput) Meena are the Northern cousins of Nadars.

Megasthenes mentions a Pandya Kingdom at Mathura at the Banks of Yamuna and claimed that Modura (Madurai) Pandyans were related to the Pandyas of Mathura at the Banks of Yamuna.

Similarly at KUNDESHWAR at Tikamgarh at MADHYA PRADESH an ancient Dynasty of BANAS ruled with the Capital at BANPUR. This dynasty was called PANDYA OF KUNDESHWAR ruled by the Northern cousins of Villavars the BANAS. The descendents BAGWAR Rajput clan.

KALITHOMAI mentioned an ancient war between VILLAVAR and MEENAVAR against their rivals the NAGAS. The Villavar lost the war and lost the control of Central India. In the earlier period the NAGAS were confined to the places north of Ganges. After the Naga victory over Villavar+ Meenavar the Naga started invading south Indian countries.

The titles of Nagas were NAGAN NAYAN NAICKAN NAIK etc
Large scale Naga migration towards south started in 250 AD.

VILMEEN KODI said...

THE VARIOUS NAGA INVADERS WHO INVADED THE VILLAVAR kINGDOMS

100 AD NAGA (MARAVAR EYINAR OVIAR OLIAR ARUVALAR PARATHAVAR)
250 AD KALABHRA (MUTHIRIYAR KINGS KALAVAR KALAR SOLDIERS)
275 AD PALLAVA KALABHARTHAR (PALLAVA (Descendents of Aswathama and a Naga princess BHARADVAJA GOTRA OF BRAHMINS) and VANNIAR (kADAVAR CHAMBUVAR VAHNIKULA THIGALA TELAGA) OF NAGA descent
300 AD GANGA (OR GOWDA) north of Ganga (Gowda Gounder Kaminder Kangeyar Konku)
345 AD BUNT/NAIR migration from AHICHATRA in Nepal to BANAVASI in Karnataka

NORTHERN BANA KINDOMS
ALUPAS PANDYAN KINGDOM, KADAMABA KINGDOM AND BANA KINGDOM of (Sannamur Kolar Perumbanappadi) mix with NAGA

ALUPAS PANDYAN KINGDOM
BUNTS from Ahichatram serve as soldiers. NADAVA Rulers Alupas Pandyan kingdom join the Bunt (Buntaru means bonded hereditary slaves) solders. Billava (Villavar) gets distanced from NADAVA. BUNT/NAIR are closely related and trace their roots from AHICHATRA in the UTTARKHAND NEPAL AREA and of NAGA descent. NEWARS is a closely related group in Nepal.

In 1102 a Tulu Alupas Pandyan prince called BHANU VIKRAMA KULASEKHARA PERUMAL invaded the Tamil Villavar Chera kingdom with a a large Nair army (Kerlolpathy) under the leadership of PADA MALA NAIR.
His successor brother of Tulu BANA ALUPAS PANDYAN KING KAVI SINGHARACHAN (KAVI ALUPENDRA) DEFEATS the TAMIL CHERA VILLAVAR DYNASTY and established his capital at VALARPATTINAM near KANNUR. He declares himself to be (TULU) CHERAMAN PERUMAL. (TULU) CHERAMAN PERUMAL left for ARABIA after naming a Tulu Bunt Samantha called UDAYA VARMAN KOLATHIRI as king of Madayi, Valarpattinam (Kannur). SAMANTHA were SUDRA NAGA with roots from AHICHATRA, NEPAL


1102 TAMIL VILLAVAR CHERA DYNASTY shifted to VENAD KOLLAM AND FORM THE CHERA-AY DYNASTY

1310 MALIK KAFURS INVASION
ALL VILLAVAR KINGDOMS come to an end. KERALA occupied various subgroups of TULU BUNT such as NAYARA MENAVA KURUBA and SAMANTHA.
In kerala four SAMANTHA (Naga) KINGDDOMS formed.
1)KOLATHIRI of kannur
2)SAMUTHIRI of Kozhikode
3)KOCHIN KINGS of Perumpadappu
4)Tamil Chera-Ay mixed with Attingal Queen (Samantha) Travancore Kingdom
1650 Pure Samantha Dynasty at Travancore

1340 VILLARVATTOM KING of Chendamangalam of old Tamil Villavar dynasty converts to Christianity. Invites Portuguese in 1450s

1335 MABAR KINGDOM MADURAI SULTHANATE formed

1378 NAGA MIXED BANA (BALIGA NAICKER) attack Pandyan country.
1450 VIJAYA NAGARA NAICKERS (NAGA) displace PANDYA (VILLAVAR MARA NADALVAR) install
puppets from KALABHRA mixed Villavar ( MAHAVILI MUTTARASA VANATHI RAYAR). BANA
rulers were also installed at MADURAI

MANIN REASON FOR THE FALL OF VILLAVAR KINGDOMS (CHERA CHOLA AND PANDYAN KINGDOMS) IS THE BANAS the northern cousins of joined the NAGA to form BALIJA (BANA) NAIDU (NAGA) clan and turned hostile to VILLAVAR.

NADAVAS ALUPAS PANDYAN KINGDOM OF BANAS again mixed with BUNT/NAIRS OF NAGA STOCK eventually loosing their own identity.
In the latter period BUNTS dominated Karnataka while Kannada NADAVA rulers were reduced to become the subgroup of Tulu speaking BUNTS.

At Kerala Villlavar were subjugated and various subgroups of Tulu-Nepalese BUNTS NAYARA, MENAVA KURUBA and SAMANTHA ruled Kerala after 1310.

TAMIL NADU was divided into 72 Palayam and shared by various Naga invaders.
NAGA KALABHRA VANNIAR and NAICKER.

Many of the DRAVIDIAN clans are actually NAGAS once who had been the enemies of the ancient VILLAVAR DRAVIDIAN people.

VILMEEN KODI said...

KALACHURI KINGDOM
The Kalachuri kingdom had its roots in the Chedi kingdom of Bundelkhand. Kalachuris had many kingdoms in the North and Central India. The Kalachuri titles were KALWAR and KALAR resembling KALABHRA titles (KALAVAR KALAPPALAR (VELLALA). The modern descendents of KALACHURIS KALWAR KALAR JAYASWAL often identify themselves with the Villavar/ NADAR.

But it appears that the KALACHURIS and KALABHRAs are the same people.


VILMEEN KODI said...

VILLAVA NADAN MARA NADAN NADALVAN all indicate VILLAVAR ORIGINS.

VILLAVAR did mix with ethnically not related people often with enemies.

Villavar mixed with Mutharaiyar the Kalabhra aristocracy to form MUTHIRIYA MOOPAR SHANAN
similarly BANA mixed with Kalabhra to fom BANA MUTHARIYAR


GRAMONY is a sanskritised form of NADALVAN in the PALLAVA country

BANA mixed with NAGA NAICKER is BALIJA NAICKER BALIJAs might play a major role in the fall of the Chera Chola and Pandyan kingdoms.

After the fall of VILLARVATTOM KINGDOM Villavar clans might have adopted Christianity in Kerala.
Most of the Catholic books printed between 1560 to 1800 is in a form of tamil called LINGUA MALABAR TAMUL. Tamil script was used to print thousands of books in Kerala at the presses at Ambazhakkad near Angamaly Kollam and Thalassery. Only after 1820s modern Malayalam used by Christians of Kerala.
At Kerala various PANICKER clans such as VALLIKADA PANICKER, KUMBANAD PANICKER MARANADU PANICKER MYLOTTU PANICKER and KUMBANADU PANICKERS are now integrated with Syrian Christians.

VALLIKADA PANICKER
Many Vallikada Panickers served as Generals of Portuguese and Dutch armies while serving the Vadakkumkur kingdom of Vaikom. Now Syrian Christians.

http://www.expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html

KUMBANAD PANICKER
After the fall of Vallikada Panicker in 1740s many Panicker familes migrated to hillytracts. Easo Panicker in 1758 built a Monastery for YOHANNAN SANYASI who was a VELLALA convert.

http://kumbanadfamily.org/html/history.html

MARANADU PANICKER
In the ancient times MARANADU and adjoining CHADAYA MANGALAM had been stongholds of Villavars of Pandyan roots. A legend states that the the Christian converts of Thevar Veedu at Kollam at the end of 13th century were attcked by the Pandyan forces perhaps alarmed by the conversions.

http://web2.airmail.net/~/z1488240/maranadu.html

Few Villavar clans such as Channar, Panickers have joined the Ezhavas of Kerala. In the internecine war for Throne invited a Srilankan Sinhalese army under the leadership of Lankapura in 1170 AD. In the Past Sinhalese had been the allies of Villavar people.
Parakrama Pandya second was exiled and ruled Ruhuna province in the South Central Srilanka between 1212-1215 as king of Ruhuna ( king of Polonnaruwa Kandy) otherwise called Malayaratha. The last Pandyan empire between 1215 to 1310 thus had Sri Lankan soldiers too.

PERUNNADASSERY CHANNAR

http://wwwchannarkadakkavoor.blogspot.in/2011/07/perunnadassery-was-prominent-ezhava.html

CHEERAPPANCHIRA PANICKER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheerappanchira


ALUMMOOTIL CHANNAR
was among the richest people in Kerala and among the first to own a Car in Kerala.

http://www.alummoottil.com/home.htm

BILLAVA
of Tulunadu could be of Villavar descent of that of Bhils on North.

NADAVA among Bunts might me the equivalent of Nadalvar and might descent from the Alupas Pandyan Kingdom.

Nadavara or Nadors found at North Kannara Uttarakannada

SETTI-BALIJA a subclan of GOUD Community of Andhra pradesh might have descendents of Bana BALIJA northern cousins of Nadars. Gouds claim kinship with Nadars.

Thus Villavar Bana people who formed Kingdoms are now broken often mixed with ethnically unrelated people

VILMEEN KODI said...

MEENA people who once founded MATSYA KINGDOM south of Yamna could be related to MEENAVAR subgroup of Villavars and thus the norhtern relatives of Nadars.

MEENA OR MEENANDA is the title of Meena people which clearly suggest Dravidian origins.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meena




VILMEEN KODI said...

BANAS THE NORTHERN COUSINS OF VILLAVAR
Banas are the Northern cousins of Villavar dynasties of Tamil Nadu. While the Villavar dynasties ruled ancient Tamilakam Banas ruled Karnataka Andhra and North India. Banas share the Pandya and Kulasekhara titles with their Villavar cousins.
SUBGROUPS OF VILLAVARS
1) Villavar
2) Vanavar
3) Malayar
And their seagoing cousins
4) Meenavar
The Villavar aristocracy called Nadazhwar are derived from all the four subgroups of Villavars. Madurai Kanchi described the splendour of the palaces of Perumbanar (Villavar). Madurai Kanchi also mentions Santor, the Villavar aristocrats.
The ancient Tamil coins displayed the Hill, Bow and Arrow and Fish insignia of various subgroups of Villavars.
VILLAVAR KINGDOMS
1) Chera (Villavar Vanavar)
2) Chola (Vanavar Villavar Thirayar)
3) Pandya (Maran Vanathirayar Perumbanar Maveli Enathy)

The Villavar Aristocracy had the titles Villavar, Nadalvar(Nadavar Nadar), Santor ( Santar) Panickan or Nadappanickan

BANA DYNASTIES OF KARNATAKA
1) BANA PANDYAS of KADAMBA KINGDOM of Banavasi in Uttara Kannada and its subgroups
a) NURUMBADA PANDYAS of Rattepalli (Rattihalli)
b) SANTARA PANDYAS of Humcha-Hosagunda, Kalasa and Karkala (Pandya Nagari)
c) UCHANGI PANDYAS
d) NOLAMBAVADI PANDYAS

2)ALUPAS (Alupa + Arasu) PANDYAN KINGDOM of Takshina Kannada


BANAS OF ANDHRAPRADESH
Banas of Andhrapradesh and Northern Tamilnadu formed the Bana Kingdom. In Tamil literature they were called as either Banas or Vanar. Sannamur, Kolar and Perumbanappadi were their centres.
The Bana titles were Mahabali, Banajiga and Balija

NORTHERN INDIA
In the North India each state has Banpur (Bhanpur Banandavghar) from where Banas ruled. Banas could be of Dravidian stock.
PANDYAS OF MATHURA
Megasthenes around 260 BC wrote about a Pandyan Kingdom at Mathura (Vada Mathurai) at the banks of Yamuna and they were relatives of PANDION OF MODURA (Madura).
PANDYAS OF TIKAMGARH
Tikamgarh was ruled by Bana kings in the ancient times. Bana kings of Tikamgarh ruled with the title Pandyas of Tikamgarh. Kundeshwar was the captial of the Bana Pandyas.
Bagwar Rajputs emerge from the Pandyas of Tikamgarh.

BANA SANTARA PANDYAS OF BANAVASI
The Titles of Banas of Karnataka
Bana Billava (Villavar)
Nadavara Nador ( Nadalvar, Nadar)
Santara (Santor, Santar)
Alva (Alvar)


Banavasi Kingdom ruled the Uttara Kannada the areas of South of Goa in ancient times it was called Gokarna.

VILMEEN KODI said...

SANTARA PANDYA KINGDOM
Santara Kingdom was founded by a Prince from the Mathura Kingdom called Jindaditta at 690 ad. Santaras ruled from Santalige in Banavasi. Santara rulers were Jains but in the late 15th century they had leanings towards Veera Shaiva sect of Hinduism. Santaras ruled from Billeswar hill at Humcha. Channa Giri near Agastya Giri was another important city.
897 VIKRAMA SANTARA 1 built a Jain temple for BAHUBALI at Guddada Basti.
1147 VIKRAMA SANTARA 11
1062 Trilokyamalla VIRA SANTARA built a Jain temple for Parsvanatha and Padmavathi, Jain deities at
Hombuja.
1077 NANNI SANTARADEVA
1110 BHUJABALA SANTARA
1160 SANTARA JAGADEVA 1 defeated Kadamba Banavasi kingdom

SANTARA DYNASTY SHIFTED TO KALASA AND KARKALA (PANDYA NAGARI)
In 1209 Facing opposition Santaras shifted their kingdom from Humcha to kalasa in Chikmagalore district and later at 14th century to Karkala in South Kanara. Karkalas old name was PANDYA NAGARI. They were called as SANTARA VEERA PANDYAS and after their conversion to Hinduism they adopted the title Bhairarasa Odeyar (Wodiyar Udayar). Some of the old Santaras of Humcha still ruled Humcha until 1320 ad.
1300 SANTARA VEERA PANDYA built Jain Basadis at Karkala.
1432 SANTARA VEERA PANDYA BHAIRARASA WODEYAR
at the insistence of his Guru Lalitakeerti the pontiff of Karkala Jaina Math installed a large statue of BAHUBALI (Gomatheswara) on the rocky hill of Karkala. He is also the most famous Santara Pandyan dynasty ruler.
1457 SANTARA ABINAVA PANDYA
1545 SANTARA PANDYA VI
1586 END OF SANTARA DYNASTY when Keladi Venkatappa Nayaka defeated the last Santara Pandya ruler of Karkala.



BANAVASI
1065 MALEYA PANDYA A Vira Gal indicates Billaya the senior General of Banavasi Nadu.
1075 KADAMBA SANTAYYA DEVA

NURUMBADA PANDYA
1168 VIJAYA PANDYA GARUNDA PANDYA
1187 BUJHABALA PANDYA
1188 VIRA PANDYA JAGADEVA PANDYA and VIJAYA PANDYA

UCHANGI PANDYAS
1108 TRIBHUVANAMALLA PANDYA
Uchangi Pandya dynasty came to an end when Hoysala Ballala invaded and defeated its last ruler in 1207 ad.


NOLAMABAVADI PANDYA
1178 TO 1184 VIJAYA PANDYA

NADAVARA (NADAVARA NADOR TORKE NADOR)
Nadavara were Kshatriya aristocracy who descended from Bana Kingdoms of Karnataka. Nadavara shifted their loyalty to Vijayanagar kingdom leading to the fall of Bana-Pandya kingdoms of Uttara Kannada. The Nadavaras of Uttara Kannada descend from the Kadamba, Bana Pandyas of Nurumbada and the Santara Pandyan Kingdoms. Nadavara had been Jains and many were converted to Hinduism in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Northern Nadavara of Uttara kannada are Patriarchal while their southern counterparts Nadavaras of Alupas Pandyan kingdom were Matriarchal. The Kannada speaking Nadavara of Mangalore have become subcastes of Naga Bunts and have adopted Matriarchy

VILMEEN KODI said...

ALUPAS PANDYAN KINGDOM
Alupas Pandyan emblem was double fish. King was called Banapperumal. They shared the Kulasekhara title of Villavars. Nadavar of Alupas Pandyan kingdom mixed with the slave warriors called Bunts (Buntaru) who were of Naga stock brought from Ahichatra in Nepal (Now in Uttarkhand Rampur). The Kannada speaking Nadavara are now a subcaste of Matriarchal Bunts who speak Tulu. Billavas role in laterday alupas Pandyan kingdom is not clear. The Naga Bunts were originally brought by Kadamba king Mayuravarma who is credited with bringing Nagas and Aryans to Kadamba kingdom in 345 AD. In the latedays Nagas migrated to Alupas Kingdom. The Naga mixed Banas would attack their Villavar cousins eventually leading to downfall of both dynasties.
ALUPAS INVASION OF KERALA
Keralolpathi mentions a Banapperumal attacking Kerala with a 350000 strong Nair army. Thus the Tamil Later Chera Villavar kingdom came to an end in 1102 after the attack of Banapperumal ( Bhanu Vikrama Kulasekharapperumal according to Kerala legends). Kulasekhara (1102-1120 ad ) might have ruled from Valarpattinam near Kannur. His successor who was the brother of Tulu king Kaviraja simhan (Kavi Alupendra) declared himself to be Cheraman Perumal thus establishing a short lived Tulu Chera dynasty. Various Tulu Bunt subcastes such as Nayara Menava Kuruba and Samantha became prominent after this attack. The last (Tulu) Cheraman Perumal(1120-1156) faced opposition from his own army when he executed his trusted general Pada Mala Nair.

The Tulu Cheraman Perumal or Banapperumal left for Arabia after dividing the Chera country among his supporters. Samanthas a Bunt subgroup who were of Naga stock and originally from Ahichatra became rulers of Kerala. Udayavarman Kolathiri a Samantha Kshatriya of Naga stock was crowned by the leaving Tulu Cheraman Perumal with the title Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal.
Pandyans of Madurai subjucated Kerala and ruled until 1310 but after that period the Bunt subgroups the Samanthas, Nayara, Menava and Kuruba became dominant in Kerala with Delhi support. Four Tulu Samantha rulers were appointed in Kerala after Malik Kafurs invasion in 1310. Kolathiri of Kannur, Samuthiri of Kozhikode, Perumbadappu of Kochi, and Attingal Queen in Travancore Kindgom
The Portuguese Dutch and British further protected theTulu-Nepalese Samantha dynasties of Kerala by providing them with Spice money and weapons. Europeans also encouraged their Barbaric customs.
CHRISTIAN PANICKERS
The last Vilarvattom dynasty with its Panicker martial trainers joined the Portuguese eventually loosing their identity. In the mid 15th century the Vilarvattom king ruling over Chendmangalam who had become a Christian sent a letter to Pope through Edessa which was forwarded to Portuguese king (Lisbon papers). But Portuguese never bothered to reinstall them as rulers. Vallikada Panickers, a dynasty of Generals led the Portuguese and Dutch armies. Panikkan or Panikkanadan was a Villavar title of Martial arts and War elephant trainers. Vlllikada Panickers, Maranadu Panickers, Kumbanadu Panickers, Mylottu Panickers are important Christian Panickers. Rattepalli originally a Bana title is owned by some Christian Panickers of Kerala.

SRILANKAN CHERAS
Alaga Kon a Chera prince from Vanjipura (Kodungaloor) migrated to Sri Lanka who built the Jeyavardhanapura Kotte near Colombo and started a new dynasty after 1310. Sadasiva Panickan an elephant trainer was a migrant from Kerala married the sister of king Parakrama Bahu of Kotte. Sadasiva Panickars son was Sempaha perumal (1452) alias Sapumal Kumarayya who defeated and ruled over Northern Arya Chakravarthi Kingdom and eventually became king of Kotte (Colombo) with title Buveneka Bahu VI.

VILMEEN KODI said...

CHERA PANDYA TITLES MISUSED BY SAMANTHAS

The Samantha rulers of Kerala installed after the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 were not related to the Earlier Chera Villavar rulers.
Villavar Cheras were Tamils
Samantha are Bunt subgroup of Tulunadu. Bunts in turn were migrants from Ahichatra in Nepal in 345 a.d.
Tamil Chera dynasty promoted Tamil. Chera wrote with Vattezuthu and Kolezhuthu ancient forms of Tamil.
The Samanthas wrote with Tigalari script a form of Tulu language. Modern Malayalam is written with Tigalari script. Their language contained Prakrit, Sanskrit words because of their Northern origin.
Chera Kings had Tamil titles such as Villavar Kon Vanavar Kon Malayar Kon
Samantha Kings never had Tamil titles. They added Birth star as a prefix to their names. Eg Moolam Thirunal Anizham Thirunal etc
Villavar Kings were Patrilnieal
Samanthas were Matrilineal
Villavars had Tamil culture
Samanthas had Tulu-Nepalese culture
Villavar Kings married from Villavar dynasties and other Kshatriya dynasties
Samantha Queens courted in a brief ceremony called Kootirupu with Nambuthiriis

The Tulu-Nepalese dynasty of Samantha rulers though of Naga stock and ethnically different from Villavar continued to use Chera and Pandyan titles such as Kulasekhara Perumal Villavar and Vanchibala along with the Delhi Sulthante given title Shamsher Jung.
Nambuthiris claim descent from Parasu Raman (Bhargava Raman) a Brahmin warrior who killed all the Kshatriyas. Parasu Raman belonged to the Chedi Kingdom, the presentday Bundelkhand (Uttarpradesh, Madhyapradesh). Nambuthhiris claim that they belong to the Bhargava Kulam. The Matriarchal Samantha-Nambuthiri dynasties continue to claim that they descend from Bhargava Kulam as well as Pandyas and Cheras.



THE BANA VILLAVAR RIVALRY
The Banas of Uttara Kannada, the NADAVARA joined the Vijayanagara armies.
The Alupas Pandyas of Dakshina Kingdom merged with Nagas eventually attacking Chera Kingdom
The Banas of Andhrapradesh and Perumbanappadi eventually merged with Naickers of Naga stock. The Balija Naickers attacked the Chola and Pandyan kingdoms leading to fall of all the Villavar kingdoms.
Balija-Nayak Kingdoms were installed in Tamil Nadu in the place of Chola Pandyan Kingdoms. Briefly Banas were installed at Madurai as rulers by the Vijayanagara Naiks in the 15th century. After this Banas also disappear from history.

VILMEEN KODI said...

PAPPARA SANRAR

Tamil inscription dated in the fifteenth reignal year of Kulothunga records the grant of certain privileges to the PAPPARA SANRAR in the Vadaparisara Nadu by the king in recognition of their services in depositing the royal goods with him the king (Nam sarakkuku Porul Vittamaiyil) such as the privilege of being carried in Palanquin, travelling on horseback, holding Chinak-Kodai (Chinese Umbrella), being accompanied by persons blowing trumpets, their women-folk wearing Tilaka on their foreheads, dividing and dressing their tresses of hair and band the tip of the plaited locks, their regiments being bedecked with ornaments, wrapping themselves with green upper garments, belting their children with golden girdles and going in procession in the village on the horseback after the payment of the marriage tax.


KONGU CHOLA INSCRIPTION
AVANASHI COIMBATORE DISTRICT

VILMEEN KODI said...

Bana Pandya Chiefs of Nurumbada Inscriptions
http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/south_indian_inscriptions/volume_18/the_pandya_chiefs.html
Santara Pandyan Dynasty
The Kadamba Kula: A History of Ancient and Mediaeval Karnataka
By George M. Moraes
Santara Veera Pandya
http://www.thehindu.com/thehindu/2002/02/04/stories/2002020400820400.htm
Bahubali (Gommatheswar) Statue Installed by Santara King Veera Pandya deva
http://jagadishvishwakarma.blogspot.in/2014/01/gommateshwar-statue.html
Nadavara of Uttara Kannada
http://www.academia.edu/8353455/Origin_of_the_Nadavara_clan_of_India
http://www.academia.edu/13005439/Who_are_Nadavaras
http://www.academia.edu/16312091/Nadavara_Religious_Belief
http://www.academia.edu/13000297/Nadavara_Migration_to_Konkan
Vallikada Panicker
http://www.expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html
Sapumal alias Sempahaperumal alias King Buvenekabahu VI a Panikkan from Royal race of Malabar
The Date of Buddha's Death and Ceylon Chronology

Ancient Jaffna
By C. Rasanayagam, Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam
Hinduism a Scientific Religion: & Some Temples in Sri Lanka
By Pon Kulendiren

The Great Punisher said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
The Great Punisher said...

Ezhavas Nadars who are Shanars are not Villavars.They are Billavars which means B-suffix Izhavars or Iravas it means islanders of srilanka. There is no single evidence of these toddy tapper community having the evidence of BOw or Archery who means for Villavars.
They are slaves of chera and pallava and chola who brought and buy from ceylon.

The orginal occupation is liquour distellers.

The Great Punisher said...




SHANAN One 374 of the good qualities of Sir Thomas Munro, formerly Governor of Madras, was that, like Rama and Rob Roy, his arms reached to his knees, or, in other words, he possessed the kingly quality of an Ajanubahu, which is the heritage of kings, or those who have blue blood in them. I This particular anatomical character have met with myself only once, in a Shanan, whose 173 21 cm.). height was (-{- and span of the arms 194 cm. Rob Roy, it will be remembered, could, cm. without stooping, tie his garters, which were placed two inches below the knee. For a detailed account of demonolatry among the Shanans, I would refer the reader to the Rev. R. Tinnevelly (afterwards Bishop) Caldwell's now scarce Shanans (1849), written when he was a young and impul' ' sive missionary, and the publication of which I believe that the learned and kind-hearted divine lived to regret. Those Shanans who are engaged in the palmyra (Borassus flabellifer) forests in extracting the juice of the palm-tree climb with marvellous activity and dexterity. a proverb that, if you desire to climb trees, you must be born a Shanan. A palmyra climber will, it has been calculated, go up from forty to is There fifty trees, each forty to is The story told by high, three times a day. Bishop Caldwell of a man who was fifty feet sitting upon a leaf-stalk at the top of a palmyra palm in a high wind, when the stalk gave way, and he came down to the ground safely and quietly, sitting on the leaf, which served the purpose of a natural parachute. Woodpeckers are called Shanara kurivi by birdcatchers, The Hindus," because they climb trees like Shanars. the Rev. (afterwards Canon) A. Margoschis writes,* * Christianity " and Caste, 1893. 375 " SHANAN

The Great Punisher said...


Census Superintendent, " the claim of the Shanans to enter the 1901, writes, temples, in spite of the rules in the Agama Shastras that toddy-drawers are not to be allowed into Hindu them ; but the pretensions of the community date back * Administration Report, 1899. SHANAN Travancore, because female Christian converts belonging to it gave up the caste practice of going about without an upper cloth." On this point Mr. G. T. Mackenzie informs us * that " in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the riot from 1858, when a occurred in female converts to Christianity in the extreme south ventured, contrary to the old rules for the lower castes, to clothe themselves above the waist. This innovation was made the occasion of disturbances. for threats, violence, and in series Similar disturbances arose from the thirty same cause nearly years later, and, 1859, Sir Charles Trevelyan, Governor of Madras, interfered, and granted permission to the women of the lower castes to wear a cloth over the breasts and shoulders. The was issued by the Maharaja of following proclamation Travancore hereby proclaim that there is no objection tQ Shanan women either putting on a jacket : We like the Christian Shanan women, or to creeds dressing in coarse cloth, selves round with it as the Mukkavattigal (fisherwomen) do, or to their covering their bosoms in any manner of all Shanan women and tying them- " of high castes." Shortly after 1858, pamphlets began to be written and published by people of the caste, setting out their claims to be whatever, but not like women In 1874 they endeavoured to establish a Kshatriyas. right to enter the great Minakshi temple at Madura, and they have since claimed to be allowed to wear the sacred thread, and to have palanquins at their but failed, weddings. They say they are descended from the Chera, in Chola and Pandya kings Kshatriyas legal ; they have styled themselves labelled their schools papers ; ; Kshatriya academy got Brahmans * of the less particular Christianity in Travancore, 1901. SHANAN kind to do purohit's work ; 366 for had poems composed on their kingly origin gone through a sort of incomplete parody of the ceremony of investiture with the ; them sacred thread ; talked much in but ignorantly of their to sign documents on festive occapalanquins at Nazareth in Tinnevelly, for sions." [During my stay the purpose of taking measurements of the Shanans, I gotras ; and induced needy persons agreeing to carry them received a visit from some elders of the community from arrived in palanquins, and bearing weapons of old device.] Their boldest stroke was to aver that Kuttam, who the coins commonly known as Shanans' cash were struck ' by sovereign ancestors of the caste. The author of a pamphlet entitled Bishop Caldwell and the Tinnevelly

The Great Punisher said...

In a petition to myself from certain Shanans of Nazareth, signed by a very large number of the com" Short account of the munity, and bearing the title Cantras or Tamil Xatras, the original but down-trodden royal race " of Southern India," they write as follows. humbly beg to say that we are the descendants of the Pandya or Dravida Xatra race, who, shortly after the universal deluge of Noah, first disafforested and colonized this land of South India under the guidance of Agastya Muni. The whole world was destroyed by flood about We B.C. 3100 (Dr. Hale's calculation), when Noah, otherwise called Vaivasvata-manu or Satyavrata, was saved with his family of seven persons in an ark or covered ship, which rested upon the highest mountain of the Aryavarta country. rapidly replenished Hence his the whole earth was by descendants. One of his grandsons (nine great Prajapatis) was Atri, whose son Candra was the ancestor of the noblest class of the Xatras " ranked above the Brahmans, and the first illustrious monarch of the post-diluvian world." Apparently," the Census Superintendent continues, "judging from the Shanan's own published statements of their case, they rest their claims chiefly upon etymological derivations of their caste name Shanan, and of Nadan and Gramani, and names are, their two usual titles. Caste titles little however, of recent origin, and SHANAN 368 can be inferred from them, whatever their meaning may be shown to be. Brahmans, for example, appear to have borne the titles of Pillai and Mudali, which are now only used by Sudras, and the Nayak kings, on the other hand, called themselves Aiyar, which is now To this day exclusively the title of Saivite Brahmans. the cultivating Vellalas, the weaving Kaikolars, and the semi-civilised hill tribe of the Jatapus use equally the title of Mudali, and the Balijas and Telagas call themselves Rao, which is properly the title of Mahratta Brahmans. exercised. literature at Regarding the derivation of the words Shanan, Nadan and Gramani, much Shanan all

The Great Punisher said...


In the inscriptions of Rajaraja Chola (A.D. 984-1013) toddy-drawers are referred to as Iluvans. According to Pingalandai, a dictionary of the loth or names of the toddy-drawer castes are To these the ChudaPalaiyar, Tuvasar, and Paduvar. mani Nikandu, a Tamil dictionary of the i6th century, century, the nth adds Saundigar. Apparently, therefore, the Sanskrit word Saundigar must have been introduced (probably by the Brahmans) between the nth and i6th centuries, and is a Sanskrit rendering of the word From Iluvan. Saundigar to Shanan is nqt a long step in the corruption The Shanans say that Shanan is derived of words. from the Tamil word Sanrar or Sanror, which means the learned or the noble. But it does not appear that the Shanans were ever called Sanrar or Sanror in any of the Tamil works. The two words Nadan and Gramani mean the same thing, namely, ruler of a country or of a village, the former being a Tamil, and the latter a Sanskrit word. Nadan, on the other hand, means a man who man who lives in the country, as opposed to Uran, the title resides in a village

The Great Punisher said...


SHANAN by the Shanans derivation It is is 370 in climbing palm-trees." The latter also given by Vellalas. worthy of note that the Tiyans, or Malabar toddy-drawers, addressione another, and are addressed by the lower classes as Shener, which form of Shanar.* is probably another The whole Shanans is story of the claims and pretensions of the out at length in the judgment in the case (1898) which was heard on appeal Kamudi temple And I may approbefore the High Court of Madras. set priately quote from the judgment. " There is no sort even suggests a probability that the Shanars are descendants from the Kshatriya or warrior castes of Hindus, or from the Nor is there Pandiya, Chola or Chera race of kings. of proof, nothing, say, that we may any distinction to be drawn between the Nadars and the ' ' Shanars. Shanar is the general name of the caste, just as Vellala and Maravar designate castes. Nadar is a assumed by certain members or families of the caste, just as Brahmins are called Aiyars, Aiyangars, and Raos. All Nadars are Shanars by caste, unless indeed they have abandoned caste, as many of them have by becoming Christians. title, mere more or less honorific, ' ' The Shanars have, as a class, from time immemorial, been devoted to the cultivation of the palmyra palm, and to the collection of the juice, and manufacture of liquor There are no grounds whatever for regarding them as of Aryan origin. Their worship was a form of demonology, and their position in general social estimation appears to have been just above that of Pallas, Pariahs, and Chucklies (Chakkiliyans), who are on all from it. hands

VILMEEN KODI said...

The Great Punisher also calls himself as மனுநீதி சோழன். மனுநீதி சோழன் appears to be a Srilankan refugee. மனுநீதி ஈழன் is talking about the Srilankan literature such as Yazhpana Vaibhava Malai, Mattakalappu Mahatmiyum and Mahavamsam all this which he studied in his childhood in a Srilankan school. மனுநீதி ஈழன் is biting the hand which fed him and his kind.

மனுநீதி ஈழன் has the audacity to say that Villavar Bana people who once ruled the whole of India are are not indigenous while his own kind are verymuch Indian. There are atleast 3 crores Villavar-Bana related people in India.
Villavar Nadalvar Nadava Nador Bana Banajiga Balija Setti Balija-Goud Bana Jats Meena all belong to ancient ruler families of Villavar-Bana people.

மனுநீதி ஈழன் trying to promote Naga Kalabhras who were once the rivals of Villavr people of India.

மனுநீதி ஈழன் does quote from Mattakalappu Mahatmiyam.

சீர்தங்கு வில்லவரும் பணிக்கனாரும் சிறந்த சட்டிலான்தனஞ்சயன்றான்

Villava nadan, Panicka Nadan and Mara Nadan are subgroups of Villavar aristocracy.

VILMEEN KODI said...

THE LEGEND OF KADAVIL CHANANMAR AND CHANATTY
Kadavil Chanatty who was instrumental in building the Eramathoor Pattambalam Devi Kshetram near Mannar Alapuzha District 700 years ago.
ധനാഡ്യരായ കടവില് ചാന്നാന്മാര് ഇടപ്പള്ളി തമ്പുരാന്റെ ആജ്ഞാനുസരണം പത്തേമാരികളിലും ചെറിയ പായ്ക്കപ്പലുകളിലും അന്യദേശങ്ങളില് നിന്ന് സാധനങ്ങള് ഇറക്കുമതി ചെയ്തും ഇവിടുത്തെ ഉല്പ്പന്നങ്ങള് ശേഖരിച്ച് അന്യനാടുകളില് വിറ്റും വ്യാപാരം നടത്തിയിരുന്നു.

Rich chieftains called Kadavil Chananmar were serving Edappally King. Kadavil Chananmar using Sailing ships and Boats were importing from foreign countries, and also collected the local produce and sold them in foreign countries.
കൊടുങ്ങല്ലൂരില് നിന്നും ദേവിയെ ആവാഹിച്ചു താളമേളങ്ങളോടെ ദേവീ സ്തുതി ആലപിച്ചുകൊണ്ടുവന്നപ്പോള് സ്തുതി ഗീതങ്ങളും താളമേളങ്ങളും ഇരമത്തൂര് കരയുടെ തെക്കേ അറ്റത്തുള്ള കടവില് കേള്ക്കാനിടയായി .
Meanwhile the Edappally King who had authority over Mannar in that era spiritually invited the Kodungalur Devi to the Temple he built at Eramathoor. With Drum and devotional music the idol was brought to Eramathoor shore.

അവിടുത്തെ തലമൂത്ത ചാന്നാടി കൊട്ടുമേളത്തിന്റെ വിവരം തിരക്കിയപ്പോള് വല്ല്യത്തു കാരണവര് ഭഗവതിയെ കൊടുങ്ങല്ലൂരില് നിന്നും ആവാഹിച്ച് കൊണ്ടുവരുന്നതാണെന്ന് ആരോ പറഞ്ഞറിഞ്ഞു. ഇതു കേട്ടതും ചാന്നാടി ഇപ്രകാരം പറഞ്ഞു. ശക്തിയുള്ള ഭഗവതിയാണെങ്കില് എന്റെ കടവില് അടുക്കട്ടെ അങ്ങനെയടുത്താല് ഞാന് ഒരുവട്ടിപ്പണവും ഒരു കുത്തുപട്ടും കാണിക്ക അര്പ്പിക്കാം.
From the Kadavil shore south of Eramathoor shore an Elderly Chanatty heard the sound of Drum beatings and asked about it. Somebody told her that the Big lord (Edappally King) was bringing Kodungaloor Godess to Eramathoor.
When she heard this Chanatty said like this
If the Bhagvathi is powerful goddess let her come to my Kadvil shore.
If she reaches here I will offer her Money and a Silk cloth.
ഇങ്ങനെ പറഞ്ഞതും വള്ളം പങ്കായക്കാരുടെ നിയന്ത്രണം വിട്ട് നേരെ തെക്കോട്ട് കുതിച്ചു. കടവില് വന്നടുത്തു. കൂടെയുണ്ടായിരുന്ന വെളിച്ചപ്പാട് അനുഗ്രഹിച്ച് തുള്ളി ചാന്നാട്ടിയെ സമീപിച്ചു. ചാന്നാട്ടി ഭയഭക്തി ബഹുമാനത്തോടു പറഞ്ഞപ്രകാരം പ്രവര്ത്തിച്ചു.
When the Chanatty said this the boat carrying the idol, lost control of the Boatmen and started moving towards Kadavil and reached the shore.
The Vellichappadu (Oracle) who was in the boat blessed Channaty.
Channaty after paying obeisance to the Goddess she submitted her offerings to the Goddess.
ചാന്നാട്ടിയുടെ ഉപഹാരം സ്വീകരിച്ച് തിരികെ പോരാന് തുടങ്ങുമ്പോള് എനിക്കൊന്നുമില്ല - എന്ന് ചാന്നാടി ചോദിച്ചു. എന്റെ ഭൂതഗണങ്ങളില് രണ്ടുപേരെ നിന്റെ രക്ഷക്കായി ഇവിടെ നിര്ത്തിയിട്ട് ഞാന് പോകുന്നു. ആണ്ടില് ഒരിക്കല് നിന്നെ വന്നു കണ്ടുകൊള്ളാമെന്ന് അരുളപ്പാടുണ്ടായി അതാണ് ഇന്നത്തെ വലിയ വീട്ടില് ദേവീ ക്ഷേത്രം.
After accepting the offerings of Chanatty when the Godess was about turn back Chanatty asked
Nothing for me ?
I will leave two of my Bootha Ganams with you for your security. In each year I will come and visit you
The Godess Granted.
This temple is the present day VALIAVEETIL DEVI KSHETRAM.

പഴയ ആചാരം അനുസരിച്ച് പറയ്ക്കെഴുന്നുള്ളുമ്പോള് അവിടെ എഴുന്നിള്ളിച്ചിരുത്തി വട്ടപ്പണത്തിന്റെയും പട്ടിന്റെയും സ്മരണക്കായി പത്തു പണവും ഉടയാടയും അവിടെ നിന്നു നല്കുന്നുണ്ടായിരുന്നു.
According to the old traditons the procession of Godess ten coins and Silk Cloth were offered as the Round coins and Silk cloth offered by the Channaty.

Even after the fall of Chera kingdom in 1102 and Pandyan Kingdoms in 1310 AD a powerful clan of Kadavil Chananmar existed in the Ambalapuzha kingdom. Kadavil Chananmar under the order of Edappally Nambiadiri a Brahmin dynasty owned Sailing ships and Boats with which they went to foreign countries for trade.
http://eramathoorsuntemple.in/